wind hazards
Recently Published Documents





2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Hao Zhang ◽  
Shiwei Hou ◽  
Yiming Ding ◽  
Chao Li ◽  
Pengfei Liu

This paper presents a comprehensive assessment method of the fragility of low-rise cold-formed steel (CFS) framed wall structures subjected to wind hazards considering the fragility of both the main structure and the cladding system. The effects of wind directions on the fragility of CFS framed wall structures were also studied. For the main structure, the fragility curve is established using the maximum interstory drift ratio (ISDRmax) as the performance index for assessing the wind fragility of the structure. For the cladding system, the probabilistic models of the wind load and the cladding component resistance are established based on Monte Carlo simulation, and then methods for the fragility assessment of single cladding components and the cladding system under wind hazards considering the influence of the number and arrangement of the cladding components are proposed. The results indicated that, under strong wind, the cladding system may be damaged before the required wind resistance capacity of the main structure is exhausted. In particular, the roof sheathing is the most prone to damage, followed by the stud wall. That is, before the main structure is severely damaged or collapses, the cladding systems may be severely damaged, rendering the structure unusable. Therefore, the comprehensive assessment of the fragility of this type of structure subjected to wind hazard considering the fragility of both the main structure and the cladding system is more accurate. This study is of great significance for the improvement of the wind resistance performance of CFS structures and the popularization of this type of structure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 209 ◽  
pp. 104460
Genshen Fang ◽  
Weichiang Pang ◽  
Lin Zhao ◽  
Prashant Rawal ◽  
Shuyang Cao ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-26
Hassan Alemzadeh ◽  
Hamzeh Shakib ◽  
Mohammad Khanmohammadi

Elevated water tanks are categorized as strategic components of water supply systems in modern urban management. Past earthquake events have revealed the high vulnerability of these structures. This paper investigates the development of rocking isolation (RI) to these structures as a response mitigation technique. Using an analytical approach, a dynamic model is developed for two isolation cases: (1) at the pedestal base and (2) under the tank. The model incorporates a simplified analogy for simulating the liquid-tank system which is modified for a tank under rocking motions. Based on the dynamics of rocking structures, the equations of motion, impact, and uplift transitions are derived. Then, free vibration and seismic response history analyses are carried out on a sample structure. Discussions are made on the effect of RI on the dynamic and seismic responses of the pedestal and components of the liquid-tank system. Effects of various RI cases, pedestal heights, and tank filling levels are studied for a group of structures excited by an ensemble of ground motions. Considering that the system may be vulnerable to other lateral loadings, the combined effects of seismic and wind hazards are also studied. The wind loads are assumed to act statically and simultaneously with the seismic excitations. Results show that the first case of RI decreases the acceleration demands of mid-rise and tall structures, thus lowering the structural demands to 50% of the fixed-base system. However, the second case of RI has almost no effect on the performance of the system, upgrading only the response of mid-rise structures. Both RI cases also aggravate the wave oscillations and increase the freeboard requirements. Finally, while the combined seismic and wind hazards have almost no effect on the operational performances, the force demands of the structures are increased by 10%.

Uwe Ulbrich ◽  
Edmund P. Meredith

A high-quality data basis is essential for reliable assessment of non-synoptic wind hazards and determination of any mitigation measures needed. Common data sources, however, often come with many shortcomings, which, if not taken into account, may lead to unsound estimation of risks from non-synoptic wind hazards. In this chapter, the range of potential data sources for assessing non-synoptic winds is discussed, including observational and model-based products. Observational products include station-based observational networks and remote sensing techniques, while model products range from global analyses to high-resolution large-eddy simulations. Both traditional and latest generation products are presented, including an explanation of how the respective data are produced and any limitations that end users should be aware of when working with such data. Sources of data deficiencies are additionally discussed, as well as factors to consider when assessing the suitability of a chosen data source as a basis for decision-making (e.g., its representativeness).

John L. Schroeder

This article reviews the techniques and approaches historically employed to measure non-synoptic wind storms. While most of these efforts have originated from the atmospheric science community, the focus of this article relates to meeting the requirements of the engineering community. While the recognition of the importance of these non-synoptic wind system events is increasing, their engineering-relevant characteristics are still largely unknown. While gaps in knowledge concerning the engineering-relevant aspects of non-synoptic wind systems are plentiful, focused application of high-resolution research instrumentation offers hope to remove many of these unknowns. Future engineering-oriented measurement campaigns will likely make use of both traditional anemometry and remote sensing technologies to document the characteristics of non-synoptic wind systems.

2020 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 1617-1637 ◽  
Genshen Fang ◽  
Lin Zhao ◽  
Shuyang Cao ◽  
Ledong Zhu ◽  
Yaojun Ge

Abstract. Coastal regions of China feature high population densities as well as wind-sensitive structures and are therefore vulnerable to tropical cyclones (TCs) with approximately six to eight landfalls annually. This study predicts TC wind hazard curves in terms of design wind speed versus return periods for major coastal cities of China to facilitate TC-wind-resistant design and disaster mitigation as well as insurance-related risk assessment. The 10 min wind information provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1977 to 2015 is employed to rebuild TC wind field parameters (radius of maximum winds Rmax,s and shape parameter of radial pressure profile Bs) at surface level using a height-resolving boundary layer model. These parameters will be documented to develop an improved JMA dataset. The probabilistic behaviors of historical tracks and wind field parameters at the first time step within a 500 km radius subregion centered at a site of interest are examined to determine preferable probability distribution models before stochastically generating correlated genesis parameters utilizing the Cholesky decomposition method. Recursive models are applied for translation speed, Rmax,s and Bs during the TC track and wind field simulations. Site-specific TC wind hazards are studied using 10 000-year Monte Carlo simulations and compared with code suggestions as well as other studies. The resulting estimated wind speeds for northern cities (Ningbo and Wenzhou) under a TC climate are higher than code recommendations, while those for southern cities (Zhanjiang and Haikou) are lower. Other cities show a satisfactory agreement with code provisions at the height of 10 m. Some potential reasons for these findings are discussed to emphasize the importance of independently developing hazard curves of TC winds.

Urban Climate ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 100625 ◽  
Tetsuya Takemi ◽  
Toshiya Yoshida ◽  
Mitsuaki Horiguchi ◽  
Wim Vanderbauwhede

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document