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Author(s):  
Amanda Queiroz Bastos ◽  
Cecilia Ferreira de Mello ◽  
Júlia dos Santos Silva ◽  
Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana ◽  
Shayenne Olsson Freitas Silva ◽  
...  

Abstract This study registers the diversity of Culicidae in the Bom Retiro Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPNBR), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, based on the collection of the immature stages in natural and artificial larval habitats. Larvae and pupae were collected monthly at two sites of the RPPNBR from May 2014 to July 2015 using dippers and aquatic pipettes. The diversity of the mosquito community was described using the Shannon–Wiener Diversity Index (H′), as well as diversity, richness, and dominance of species found in different larval habitats (lake, bamboos, bromeliads, and artificial vessels). The Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate differences between the two natural and artificial habitats. Overall, 15,659 specimens belonging to 25 species, ten genera, and two subfamilies were collected. The most abundant species collected at sites that were reforested recently were Culex pleuristriatus Theobald, 1903, Limatus durhamii (Theobald, 1901), Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895), Culex neglectus (Lutz, 1904), and Culex retrosus (Lane & Whitman, 1951). In a forest preserved site, the most abundant species were Cx. neglectus, Culex iridescens (Lutz, 1905), Sabethes identicus (Dyar & Knab, 1907), Wyeomyia arthrostigma (Lutz, 1905), and Li. durhamii. With respect to larval habitats, 0.1% of the specimens were collected along the edge of a lake, 5.5% in bamboos, 35.9% in bromeliads, and 58.4% in artificial containers. Only 5.5% of the specimens were collected in the forest preserved site, with the remaining samples from the site with altered vegetation. A greater species richness and diversity were found in forest-altered sites compared to the forest preserved site. Several species were collected in the water accumulated in the nylon lids of plastic water tanks. Such vessels can promote an increase in mosquito population density in the environment surrounding the study area.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. 3514
Author(s):  
Camila Oliveira de Britto Salgueiro ◽  
Haylla Rebeka De Albuquerque Lins Leonardo ◽  
Leidjane Maria Maciel de Oliveira ◽  
Sylvana Melo dos Santos

O processo de urbanização, com intensificação no número de construções, resulta na impermeabilização das superfícies na redução da infiltração e do escoamento subterrâneo, e consequente aumento do escoamento superficial. Neste contexto, pesquisadores buscam tecnologias para minimizar tais problemas ambientais, visando a melhoria não só da conjuntura atual, mas também das próximas gerações. Assim, se inserem as tecnologias verdes para mitigação dos problemas ambientais, com destaque para os telhados verdes. Tal cenário de crescimento urbanístico e de problemas ambientais é evidenciado nos grandes centros urbanos, a exemplo do município de Recife-PE, especificamente na Região Político Administrativa RPA2, no bairro de Dois Unidos. Para identificar áreas verdes e urbanizadas, foi empregada a tecnologia do Sensoriamento Remoto com o emprego do Índice de Construção por Diferença Normalizada (NDBI) e, para identificar os pontos baixos das vias e realizar a análise de alagamento foi utilizado o Modelo Digital de Elevação (MDE) com a geração das curvas de nível. Os resultados indicaram que as duas ações investigadas, telhados verdes e caixas d’água, conjuntamente, foram ineficientes na resolução dos alagamentos e que os custos da adaptação dos telhados para implantação das coberturas verdes foram mais onerosos que a aquisição de caixas d’água de 500 L. Por outro lado, tais ações podem contribuir para a redução das dimensões do projeto de drenagem urbana reduzindo o volume de água pluvial excedente (acima da capacidade de escoamento da sarjeta) em cerca de 45% (de 46.033,30 m3 para 20.902,23 m3).    Remote Sensing applied to the Impact Assessment of Rainwater Storage in the Urban Drainage SystemA B S T R A C TThe urbanization process, with an increase in the number of constructions, results in the waterproofing of surfaces, reducing infiltration and underground runoff, and a consequent increase in surface runoff. In this context, researchers are looking for technologies to minimize such environmental problems, aiming to improve not only the current situation, but also the next generations. Thus, green technologies are included to mitigate environmental problems, with an emphasis on green roofs. Such a scenario of urban growth and environmental problems is evidenced in large urban centers, such as the municipality of Recife-PE, specifically in the Administrative Political Region RPA2, in the neighborhood of Dois Unidos. To identify green and urbanized areas, Remote Sensing technology was used with the use of the Normalized Difference Construction Index (NDBI) and, to identify the low points of the roads and perform the flood analysis, the Digital Elevation Model was used (MDE) with the generation of contour lines. The results indicated that the two actions investigated, green roofs and water tanks, together, were inefficient in resolving the floods and that the costs of adapting the roofs for the implementation of green roofs were more expensive than the purchase of water tanks from 500 L. On the other hand, such actions can contribute to reducing the dimensions of the urban drainage project by reducing the volume of excess rainwater (above the drainage capacity of the gutter) by about 45% (from 46,033.30 m3 to 20,902.23 m3).Keywords: urban drainage, green roof, water tanks.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 133-142
Author(s):  
Awatef K Ali ◽  
Magdi S Mahmoud

A multivariable process of four interconnected water tanks is considered for modeling and control. The objective of the current study is to design and implement a distributed control and estimation (DEC) for a multivariable four-tank process. Distributed model and inter-nodal communication structure are derived from global state–space matrices, thus combining the topology of plant flow sheet and the interaction dynamics across the plant subunits. Using experimental data, the process dynamics and disturbance effects are modeled. A typical lab-scale system was simulated and the obtained results demonstrated the potential of the DEC algorithm.


Author(s):  
L. Berardi ◽  
D. Laucelli ◽  
F. Ciliberti ◽  
S. Bruaset ◽  
G. Raspati ◽  
...  

Abstract A reliable water distribution network (WDN) can provide an adequate supply service to customers under both normal and abnormal working conditions. The WDN reliability analysis, therefore, is a keystone to improve the supply service efficiency. Strategies for reliability analysis are usually proved on small WDNs, which do not compare with large real complex systems in terms of number of water tanks, pressure reduction valves, variable speed pumps, controlled devices and possible alternative water supply schemes. The topological changes due to pipeline interruptions impact on emptying–filling of water tanks and network pressure status. This work proposes a two-level procedure for mechanical reliability assessment, suited for large real WDNs. It leverages a path/connectivity-based approach to set up reliability indicators for global-level analysis and local screening of the most critical scenarios. The employed advanced hydraulic model includes the automatic detection of topological changes and the robust modelling of water level in tanks using the generalized global gradient algorithm. The extended period simulation enables the reliability assessment of alternative water supply schemes and the sensitivity of tanks and controlled devices to single failure events. The procedure is demonstrated on a real complex network, being consistent with the ongoing digital transition in the WDN management sector.


2021 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
pp. e50828
Author(s):  
Rodrigo Diana Navarro ◽  
Sonia Maria Batista Alves ◽  
Thays Nogueira Lobo Ribeiro Ribeiro

Learning about the biology of the species is essential to the success of intensive farming. This study aimed to evaluate the semen of Thai tilapia during the four seasons of the year and thereby analyze their reproductive indices. Thus, 60 breeding males of Tilapia were used and were randomly divided into four water tanks and fed with isoproteic and isocaloric feed. The experiment lasted 12 months, starting from October 2014 and ending on September 2015. Thus, it was possible to collect sperm material of animals during the four seasons, twice a month, as well as to evaluate the water quality parameters in the tanks (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen). The semen was evaluated from a light microscope in an increase of 100 x, then was activated with water. Motility was measured subjectively in the light microscope, as well as the percentage of sperm showing progressive motility. The duration was evaluated with the addition of a timer. For analysis of the morphology of the semen, the test consisted of morphopathology observation of 100 sperm focused in various fields throughout the slide in the light microscope. Once obtained, these data were analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey test as post-hoc analysis, with the help of the software R Statistics. Water quality factors (temperature, pH and2 dissolved) were acceptable and during the 12 month period the sperm of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) had a good ability for fertilization, seen that it performed below the average of the percentage of critical abnormalities, and quality was perceived by the parameters that also influence fertilization (motility rate, duration of motility and vigor).


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0258681
Author(s):  
Higor Souza Cunha ◽  
Brenda Santana Sclauser ◽  
Pedro Fonseca Wildemberg ◽  
Eduardo Augusto Militão Fernandes ◽  
Jefersson Alex dos Santos ◽  
...  

Studies have shown that areas with lower socioeconomic standings are often more vulnerable to dengue and similar deadly diseases that can be spread through mosquitoes. This study aims to detect water tanks installed on rooftops and swimming pools in digital images to identify and classify areas based on the socioeconomic index, in order to assist public health programs in the control of diseases linked to the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study covers four regions of Campinas, São Paulo, characterized by different socioeconomic contexts. With mosaics of images obtained by a 12.1 MP Canon PowerShot S100 (5.2 mm focal length) carried by unmanned aerial vehicles, we developed deep learning algorithms in the scope of computer vision for the detection of water tanks and swimming pools. An object detection model, which was initially created for areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, was enhanced using the transfer learning technique, and allowed us to detect objects in Campinas with fewer samples and more efficiency. With the detection of objects in digital images, the proportions of objects per square kilometer for each region studied were estimated by adopting a Chi-square distribution model. Thus, we found that regions with low socioeconomic status had more exposed water tanks, while regions with high socioeconomic levels had more exposed pools. Using deep learning approaches, we created a useful tool for Ae. aegypti control programs to utilize and direct disease prevention efforts. Therefore, we concluded that it is possible to detect objects directly related to the socioeconomic level of a given region from digital images, which encourages the practicality of this approach for studies aimed towards public health.


Author(s):  
Shah Harishchandra ◽  
Pandey Basu Dev

With the objectives of determining the association between risk factors and Dengue Fever (DF), a case-control study with a random sample size of 102:102 in each was conducted at Hetauda and Kamalamai Municipalities, Nepal. The hypothesis of risk factors for DF like low level of knowledge about DF, discarded receptacles, old tires, containers, etc. nearby house, and use of stagnant AC/Coolers was used to conduct the study. Traveling to DF affected areas nearly 2 weeks before the onset of disease was significantly associated with dengue fever (OR= 6.10, 95% cl: 1.31-28.34, p<0.021). Waste disposal of old containers, receptacles, tires during the rainy season were significantly associated with the incidence of DF (AOR= 6.308, 96% cl: 2-751-14.462, p<0.000). The frequency of DF was associated with the middle social class level (p<0.05, d. f. 2). Uncovered water tanks of the household were significantly associated with DF (AOR= 3.78, 95% cl: 1.51-9.45, p<0.0043). As the number of families increases in the household, the number of cases increases with a positive correlation (r = +0.62). Crowded households with more than 2 occupants in one room were at risk of dengue infection. The study concluded that DF was associated with the risk factors of traveling to endemic areas, discarded waste containers, receptacles, tires, and uncovered water tanks, middle social class, and crowded households. Public health managers should prioritize these risk factors while planning for DF control and prevention.


Author(s):  
Hamid Abdul Kareem Hamid ◽  
Hiba Hussein Musa ◽  
Adla Gassim Ahmed ◽  
Tayseer Ali Abdul Azeez ◽  
Asma Hamza Adam ◽  
...  

Background: Darfur in Western Sudan has the most volatile camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and has experienced several outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. Aims: To determine the prevalence and Stegomyia indices of Aedes aquatic stages in El Geneina town, Western Darfur. Methods: Cross-sectional entomological surveys of immature stages of Aedes were carried out during August–November 2019 in 4 sites with IDP camps and a residential area with no camp. Results: We searched 17 730 houses, IDP camps and buildings of governmental corporations for Aedes larvae, and 6809 (38.4%) were positive for Aedes aquatic stages. Both Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus larvae were found. However, A. aegypti constituted > 90% of the larvae. Six positive water containers were recorded: tyres, clay pots, barrels, plastic water tanks, flower vases and old cars: 26% of 92 tyres contained Aedes larvae compared to 23.8% of 21 old cars and 17.1% of 44 198 clay pots. This suggested that clay pots were the main source of Aedes. The results showed high infestation of El Geneina town with Aedes immature stages in all study sites including public buildings and residential areas with no IDP camps. Stegomyia indices varied among study sites, and were more elevated in sites with IDP camps. For all sites, House index = 38.40, Container Index = 11.40, Breateu index = 13.60 and Pupa Index = 27. Conclusion: Multisectoral response coupled with community participation are urgently needed to reduce the burden of Aedes-borne diseases in the unstable El Geneina town.


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