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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122127
Author(s):  
Changliang Shi ◽  
Shihao Chen ◽  
Jiao Ma ◽  
Yang Lu ◽  
Gan Cheng ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
He Zhenpeng ◽  
Zhou Jiaxing ◽  
Xin Jia ◽  
Yang Chengquan ◽  
Li Baichun

Abstract The present work reports the influence of the 1.5-stage turbine flow field by the front and aft rim seal flow. The interaction between the front and aft purge flow and the mainstream of a 1.5-stage turbine was numerically simulated, and the influence of the front and aft purge flow on the downstream vane was analyzed separately. The results show that the front purge flow is distributed at the higher radius of second vane inlet, which changes the position of the blade hub secondary flows, and the aft purge flow is distributed at the low radius. The purge flow at different locations in the aft cavity exit forms shear induced vortex, pressure and suction side legs of the egress, which converges with the suction and pressure side legs of the horse vortex to form vane hub passage vortex. The increased purge flow rate in both the front and aft cavities significantly increases the sealing effectiveness of the rim seal, but also causes a reduction in turbine efficiency. The combined effect of the front and aft purge flow reduces the turbine efficiency of the end-wall structure by 0.3619, 0.9062, 1.5004, 2.0188 and 2.509% at IR = 0, IR = 0.5%, IR = 0.9%, IR = 1.3% and IR = 1.7%.


Author(s):  
Jiali CHEN ◽  
Peiyu Ji ◽  
Maoyang Li ◽  
Tianyuan Huang ◽  
Lanjian Zhuge ◽  
...  

Abstract Herein, we report the successful preparation of Ag–decorated vertical–oriented graphene sheets (Ag/VGs) via helicon wave plasma chemical vapor deposition (HWP–CVD) and radio frequency plasma magnetron sputtering (RF–PMS). VGs were synthesized in a mixture of argon and methane (Ar/CH4) by HWP–CVD, and then the silver nanoparticles on the prepared VGs were modified using the RF-PMS system under different sputtering times and RF power levels. The morphology and structure of the Ag nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results revealed that Ag nanoparticles were evenly dispersed on the mesoporous wall of the VGs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the diameter of the Ag particles increased with the increase of silver loading, and the average size was between 10.49 nm and 25.9 nm, which were consistent with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Ag/VGs were investigated as effective electrocatalysts for use in an alkaline aqueous system. Due to the uniquely ordered and interconnected wall structure of VGs, the area of active sites increased with the Ag loading, which made the Ag/VGs have high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance. The double–layer capacitance (Cdl) of the Ag/VGs under different silver loadings were studied, and the results showed that highest silver content is the best (1.04 mF/cm2). The results showed that, Ag/VGs expected to be a credible electrocatalytic material.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 795
Author(s):  
Lulu Han ◽  
Chenggong Jiang ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Hongwu Wang ◽  
Kun Li ◽  
...  

Lodging is the primary factor limiting high yield under a high plant density. However, an optimal plant height and leaf shape can effectively decrease the lodging risk. Here we studied an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced dwarf and a narrow-leaf mutant, dnl2. Gene mapping indicated that the mutant was controlled by a gene located on chromosome nine. Phenotypic and cytological observations revealed that dnl2 showed inhibited cell growth, altered vascular bundle patterning, and disrupted secondary cell wall structure when compared with the wild-type, which could be the direct cause of the dwarf and narrow-leaf phenotype. The phytohormone levels, especially auxin and gibberellin, were significantly decreased in dnl2 compared to the wild-type plants. Transcriptome profiling of the internodes of the dnl2 mutant and wild-type revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes enriched in the cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling, and hormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Therefore, we suggest that crosstalk between hormones (the altered vascular bundle and secondary cell wall structure) may contribute to the dwarf and narrow-leaf phenotype by influencing cell growth. These results provide a foundation for DNL2 gene cloning and further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of the regulation of plant height and leaf shape in maize.


Fluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Author(s):  
Lung-Jieh Yang ◽  
Vivek-Jabaraj Joseph ◽  
Neethish-Kumar Unnam ◽  
Balasubramanian Esakki

The study of separating different sizes of particles through a microchannel has been an interest in recent years and the primary attention of this study is to isolate the particles to the specific outlets. The present work highly focuses on the design and numerical analysis of a microchip and the microparticles capture using special structures like corrugated dragonfly wing structure and cilia walls. The special biomimetic structured corrugated wing is taken from the cross-sectional area of the dragonfly wing and cilia structure is obtained from the epithelium terminal bronchioles to the larynx from the human body. Parametric studies were conducted on different sizes of microchip scaled and tested up in the range between 2–6 mm and the thickness was assigned as 80 µm in both dragonfly wing structure and cilia walls. The microflow channel is a low Reynolds number regime and with the help of the special structures, the flow inside the microchannel is pinched and a sinusoidal waveform pattern is observed. The pinched flow with sinusoidal waveform carries the particles downstream and induces the particles trapped in desired outlets. Fluid particle interaction (FPI) with a time-dependent solver in COMSOL Multiphysics was used to carry out the numerical study. Two particle sizes of 5 µm and 20 µm were applied, the inlet velocity of 0.52 m/s with an inflow angle of 50° was used throughout the study and it suggested that: the microchannel length of 3 mm with corrugated dragonfly wing structure had the maximum particle capture rate of 20 µm at the mainstream outlet. 80% capture rate for the microchannel length of 3 mm with corrugated dragonfly wing structure and 98% capture rate for the microchannel length of 2 mm with cilia wall structure were observed. Numerical simulation results showed that the cilia walled microchip is superior to the corrugated wing structure as the mainstream outlet can conduct most of the 20 µm particles. At the same time, the secondary outlet can laterally capture most of the 5 µm particles. This biomimetic microchip design is expected to be implemented using the PDMS MEMS process in the future.


2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110606
Author(s):  
Xiao-ting Wang ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Peng Pan ◽  
Qi-song Miao

A novel monolithic precast concrete shear wall structure system was proposed, with four connector types: “cast-in-site elbow reinforced concrete joints,” “dry connectors,” “shaped steel shear keys,” and “shaped steel boundary elements” based on welding process with stable and high quality. The first two connect walls horizontally and the other two connect walls between adjacent stories. A high precast ratio, over 60%, can be achieved. To evaluate the strength, stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity of the proposed system, a full-scale three-story model was tested quasi-statically in the two horizontal directions. The model showed strong spatial response, demonstrating sufficient strength and stiffness to resist severe earthquakes. The coupling beams suffered shear failure damage. The connectors sustained large internal forces, surviving under simulated severe earthquake conditions. The external thermal insulation layers remained firmly attached to the precast wall panels, satisfying the design objectives.


Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Sung-Kyung Kim ◽  
Ji-Hye Ryu ◽  
Hyun-Cheol Seo ◽  
Won-Hwa Hong

The thermal comfort of occupants in the increasing number of modern buildings with glass curtain wall structures is of significant research interest. As the thermal sensitivity of building occupants varies with building features, situational factors, and the human body’s thermal balance, it is necessary to derive the comfort temperature based on field research, which was conducted in this study in a South Korean office building with a glass curtain wall structure. The influence of solar radiation on the indoor thermal environment and thermal comfort obtained by measurements and occupant questionnaires was analyzed using cumulative graphs and a sensitivity analysis. The observed changes in operative temperature over time confirmed that occupant comfort was significantly affected by the radiant temperature. Based on this result, two groups (Group A near the windows and Group B near the interior corridor) were defined for analysis. Owing to the influx of solar radiation, Group A was more sensitive to changes in the thermal environment (0.67/°C) than Group B (0.49/°C), and the derived comfort temperature for each group differed from the set temperature by approximately ±2 °C. Thus, it was confirmed that the solar radiation introduced through a glass curtain wall building has a direct impact on the indoor thermal environment and occupant comfort according to location.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Author(s):  
Nórida Vélez ◽  
Lucía Monteoliva ◽  
Zilpa-Adriana Sánchez-Quitian ◽  
Ahinara Amador-García ◽  
Rocío García-Rodas ◽  
...  

In fungi, metals are associated with the expression of virulence factors. However, it is unclear whether the uptake of metals affects their pathogenicity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of iron/copper in modulating pathogenicity and proteomic response in two clinical isolates of C. neoformans with high and low pathogenicity. Methods: In both isolates, the effect of 50 µM iron and 500 µM copper on pathogenicity, capsule induction, and melanin production was evaluated. We then performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of cytoplasmic extracts exposed to that combination. Finally, the effect on pathogenicity by iron and copper was evaluated in eight additional isolates. Results: In both isolates, the combination of iron and copper increased pathogenicity, capsule size, and melanin production. Regarding proteomic data, proteins with increased levels after iron and copper exposure were related to biological processes such as cell stress, vesicular traffic (Ap1, Vps35), cell wall structure (Och1, Ccr4, Gsk3), melanin biosynthesis (Hem15, Mln2), DNA repair (Chk1), protein transport (Mms2), SUMOylation (Uba2), and mitochondrial transport (Atm1). Increased pathogenicity by exposure to metal combination was also confirmed in 90% of the eight isolates. Conclusions: The combination of these metals enhances pathogenicity and increases the abundance of proteins related to the main virulence factors.


Author(s):  
Lingyun Cheng ◽  
Nianwen Xiang ◽  
Kejie Li ◽  
Weijiang Chen ◽  
Kai Bian ◽  
...  

Abstract After cumulative discharge of gas discharge tube (GDT), it is easy to form a short circuit pathway between the two electrodes, which increases the failure risk and causes severe influences on the protected object. To reduce the failure risk of GDT and improve cumulative discharge times before failure, this work aims to suppress the formation of two short-circuit pathways by optimizing the tube wall structure, the electrode materials and the electrode structure. A total of five improved GDT samples are designed by focusing on the insulation resistance change that occurs after the improvement; then, by combining these designs with the microscopic morphology changes inside the cavity and the differences in deposition composition, the reasons for the differences in the GDT failure risk are also analyzed. The experimental results show that compared with GDT of traditional structure and material, the method of adding grooves at both ends of the tube wall can effectively block the deposition pathway of the tube wall, and the cumulative discharge times before device failure are increased by 149%. On this basis, when the iron-nickel electrode is replaced with a tungsten-copper electrode, the difference in the electrode’s surface splash characteristics further extends the discharge times before failure by 183%. In addition, when compared with the traditional electrode structure, the method of adding an annular structure at the electrode edge to block the splashing pathway for the particles on the electrode surface shows no positive effect, and the cumulative discharge times before the failure of the two structures are reduced by 22.8% and 49.7% respectively. Among these improved structures, the samples with grooves at both ends of the tube wall and tungsten-copper as their electrode material have the lowest failure risk.


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