Accidents in highway tunnels involving trucks carrying flammable cargoes can be dangerous, needing immediate confrontation to detect and safely evacuate the trapped people to lead them to the safety exits. Unfortunately, existing sensing technologies fail to detect and track trapped persons or moving vehicles inside tunnels in such an environment. This paper presents a distributed Bluetooth system architecture that uses detection equipment following a MIMO approach. The proposed equipment uses two long-range Bluetooth and one BLE transponder to locate vehicles and trapped people in motorway tunnels. Moreover, the detector’s parts and distributed architecture are analytically described, along with interfacing with the authors’ resources management system implementation. Furthermore, the authors also propose a speed detection process, based on classifier training, using RSSI input and speed calculations from the tunnel inductive loops as output, instead of the Friis equation with Kalman filtering steps. The proposed detector was experimentally placed at the Votonosi tunnel of the EGNATIA motorway in Greece, and its detection functionality was validated. Finally, the detector classification process accuracy is evaluated using feedback from the existing tunnel inductive loop detectors. According to the evaluation process, classifiers based on decision trees or random forests achieve the highest accuracy.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to enhance patient safety in surgery, and all its aspects, including education and training, will derive considerable benefit from AI. In the present study, deep-learning models were used to predict the rates of proficiency acquisition in robot-assisted surgery (RAS), thereby providing surgical programs directors information on the levels of the innate ability of trainees to facilitate the implementation of flexible personalized training.
176 medical students, without prior experience with surgical simulators, were trained to reach proficiency in five tasks on a virtual simulator for RAS. Ensemble deep neural networks (DNN) models were developed and compared with other ensemble AI algorithms, i.e., random forests and gradient boosted regression trees (GBRT).
DNN models achieved a higher accuracy than random forests and GBRT in predicting time to proficiency, 0.84 vs. 0.70 and 0.77, respectively (Peg board 2), 0.83 vs. 0.79 and 0.78 (Ring walk 2), 0.81 vs 0.81 and 0.80 (Match board 1), 0.79 vs. 0.75 and 0.71 (Ring and rail 2), and 0.87 vs. 0.86 and 0.84 (Thread the rings 2). Ensemble DNN models outperformed random forests and GBRT in predicting number of attempts to proficiency, with an accuracy of 0.87 vs. 0.86 and 0.83, respectively (Peg board 2), 0.89 vs. 0.88 and 0.89 (Ring walk 2), 0.91 vs. 0.89 and 0.89 (Match board 1), 0.89 vs. 0.87 and 0.83 (Ring and rail 2), and 0.96 vs. 0.94 and 0.94 (Thread the rings 2).
Ensemble DNN models can identify at an early stage the acquisition rates of surgical technical proficiency of trainees and identify those struggling to reach the required expected proficiency level.
AbstractAn algorithm for non-stationary spatial modelling using multiple secondary variables is developed herein, which combines geostatistics with quantile random forests to provide a new interpolation and stochastic simulation. This paper introduces the method and shows that its results are consistent and similar in nature to those applying to geostatistical modelling and to quantile random forests. The method allows for embedding of simpler interpolation techniques, such as kriging, to further condition the model. The algorithm works by estimating a conditional distribution for the target variable at each target location. The family of such distributions is called the envelope of the target variable. From this, it is possible to obtain spatial estimates, quantiles and uncertainty. An algorithm is also developed to produce conditional simulations from the envelope. As they sample from the envelope, realizations are therefore locally influenced by relative changes of importance of secondary variables, trends and variability.