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2022 ◽  
Vol 59 (2) ◽  
pp. 102798
Haihua Chen ◽  
Lei Wu ◽  
Jiangping Chen ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Junhua Ding

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Zhe Chen ◽  
Hongli Zhang ◽  
Lin Ye ◽  
Shang Li

In the judicial field, with the increase of legal text data, the extraction of legal text elements plays a more and more important role. In this paper, we propose a sentence-level model of legal text element extraction based on the structure of multilabel text classification. Our proposed model contains an encoder and an improved decoder. The encoder applies multilevel convolutional neural networks (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) as feature extraction networks to extract local neighborhood and context information from legal text, and a decoder applies LSTM with multiattention and full connection layer with an improved initialization method to decode and generate label sequences. To our best knowledge, it is one of the first attempts to apply a multilabel classification algorithm for element extraction of legal text. In order to verify the effectiveness of our model, we conduct experiments not only on three real legal text datasets but also on a general multilabel text classification dataset.The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model outperforms baseline models on legal text datasets, and our model is competitive to baseline models on the general text multilabel classification dataset, which indicates that our proposed model is useful for multilabel classification tasks of ordinary texts and legal texts with an uncertain number of characters in words and short lengths.

2021 ◽  
pp. 85-113
Diego Serra ◽  
Marco Cecini ◽  
Fabio Manuel Serra ◽  
Alessandro Podda

The study of some unpublished documents coming from several European and international libraries, after the publication of Anejos VIII, and the reconsideration of other primary sources that have already been studied, would seem to confirm most hypotheses raised in the book with a good margin of probability. The comparative analysis of these documents will allow us, as follows: a) to describe the historical background of the two letters, especially with regard to the rescriptum; b) to suggest a more precise dating of this rescriptum; and c) to outline the manuscript tradition of the two letters that, starting from the legal text in Koine Greek, are transformed into an apologetic literary text by means of interpolations that mostly affected the edict of tolerance. The preliminary study of some legal papyri, in comparison with the different versions of Ep. I, allowed us to propose a critical reconstruction of the text that has undergone numerous interpolations over the centuries. The first letter perfectly matches with both the structure and the legal terminology of the Hellenistic-Roman laws, in so fully mirroring the words used by Eusebius and Optatus to describe Maxentius' edict of tolerance. El estudio de algunos documentos inéditos procedentes de varias bibliotecas europeas e internacionales, tras la publicación de Anejos VIII, y la reconsideración de otras fuentes primarias ya estudiadas, parece confirmar la mayoría de las hipótesis planteadas en el libro con un buen margen de probabilidad. El análisis comparativo de estos documentos nos permitirá, de la siguiente manera: a) describir los antecedentes históricos de las dos epístolas, especialmente con referencia al rescriptum; b) hipotetizar una fecha más precisa de este rescriptum; y c) describir la tradición manuscrita de las dos epístolas que, a partir del texto legal en griego koiné, se transforman en un texto literario apologético mediante interpolaciones que afectan mayoritariamente el edicto de tolerancia. Además, el estudio preliminar de algunos papiros legales, en comparación con las diferentes versiones de Ep. 1, nos permitió proponer una reconstrucción crítica del texto que ha sufrido numerosas interpolaciones a lo largo de los siglos. La primera letra encaja perfectamente tanto con la estructura como con la terminología legal de las leyes helenístico-romanas, reflejando tan plenamente las palabras utilizadas por Eusebio y Optato para describir el edicto de tolerancia de Majencio.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (S4) ◽  
pp. 2211-2218
Mohamed Shafei Moftah Bosheya

One of the most important goals of the marital relationship is the affection and compassion that drive spouses to cooperate together in earning their livelihood. When the marital relationship breaks down, each of the spouses would claim his/her share of the matrimonial property; such claim is different from the stipulated legal dues such as the inheritance and the alimony. The question is, what is the definition of the matrimonial property? Does this concept exist in the old Islamic jurisprudence? Is it legal to claim this money by one of the spouses or their heirs? And to what extent is the interest achieved or hardship avoided if the claimant is given his/her share? What is the position of the Malaysian Judiciary and its legal text on that issue? What is the stand of the official fatwa departments on this issue? What are the types of legal evidence cited by the different fatwas related to the matrimonial property? Moreover, are there countries other than Malaysia that have adopted this system?

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1709-1716
Shifang Li ◽  
Yifan Wang

This study analyzes the textual cohesion of Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China from the perspective view of Cohesion Theory. According to the data analysis, the study indicates that, in this legal text, the means of cohesion occurs totally 792 times, among which grammatical cohesion takes a large proportion, that is, 83.9%, while lexical cohesion takes the ration of 16.1%. In the lexical cohesion, the repetition is used much more frequently, followed by the means of hyponymy/meronymy, synonymy/antonymy and collocation, taking the ratio of 0.8%, 0.5% and 0.4% respectively. Thus, we can know from the statistics that cohesion is an important feature of the Chinese legal text. It connects the syntactic grammar and the lexicons into together closely in the Chinese legal Articles. Therefore, the paper points out that a proper understanding of the cohesive devices in the Chinese legal text is significant to legal draftsmen and social scientists in the field of language and the law, for they might improve the text quality of their work with it.

2021 ◽  
Benjamin Clavié ◽  
Marc Alphonsus

We aim to highlight an interesting trend to contribute to the ongoing debate around advances within legal Natural Language Processing. Recently, the focus for most legal text classification tasks has shifted towards large pre-trained deep learning models such as BERT. In this paper, we show that a more traditional approach based on Support Vector Machine classifiers reaches competitive performance with deep learning models. We also highlight that error reduction obtained by using specialised BERT-based models over baselines is noticeably smaller in the legal domain when compared to general language tasks. We discuss some hypotheses for these results to support future discussions.

2021 ◽  
Michael van der Veen ◽  
Natalia Sidorova

NLP-based techniques can support in improving understanding of legal text documents. In this work we present a semi-automatic framework to extract signal phrases from legislative texts for an arbitrary European language. Through a case study using Dutch legislation, we demonstrate that it is feasible to extract these phrases reliably with a small number of supporting domain experts. Finally, we argue how in future works our framework could be utilized with existing methods to be applied to different languages.

Philipp Pilhofer

Abstract The city of Leontopolis in Isauria first appears in the sources towards the end of the 5th century, more precisely: in a legal text of the later Codex Iustinianus. In general, the surviving information is very sparse. In this essay, the source material is reviewed, in particular the mentioned law and the Martyrdom of Konon of Bidana. On this basis, a date of foundation is suggested, a new localisation of the city is established and the question of its own episcopal see is pursued.

2021 ◽  
pp. arabic cover-english cover
علي عبد العزيز سيور

يجيب البحث عن إشكالية تتعلق بالعلاقات الأسرية من جهة الاحتكام للأعراف في النفقة والمسكن والملبس وغيرها، مما يترتب على ذلك خلافات تفضي ببعضها إلى المحاكم، وقد تنتهي بالطلاق. وقد هدف البحث إلى : 1 ـ تقديم منظومة معرفية متعلقة بدلالات العشرة بالمعروف من أجل الإسهام في إعادة تشكيل عقلية ناضجة للزوجين تضبط العلاقة بينهما عند الخلاف. 2 ـ تسليط الضوء على أبعاد وحدود المعروف نصًا والمعروف عرفًا في الأسرة. 3 ـ التأكيد على أن العشرة بالمعروف متبادلة بين كل من الزوج والزوجة، لا يقتصر هذا التكليف على واحد دون الآخر. وقد اعتمدت المنهج الاستقرائي عبر جمع الايات القرآنية ذات الصلة وذكر أقوال المفسرين والفقهاء، والمنهج التحليلي في فهم دلالات الألفاظ وتوجيهات المفسرين، والمنهج الاستنباطي بغية الوصول إلى ضوابط جامعة تخدم الهدف العام للبحث، وانتهى البحث إلى مجموعة من النتائج والتوصيات ومنها: اعتبار العرف الذي لا يخالف نصًا شرعيًا قاعدة من القواعد المعتبرة في ضبط العلاقات بين الزوجين. بشرط أن يقع تحت قدرة الزوج وطاقته، وأن يكون مما انتشر بين الناس، وينطبق على الأسرة مثله. القرآن الكريم ـ العشرة بالمعروف – العلاقة الأسرية – الحقوق بين الزوجين – العرف وأثره بين الزوجين. Summary The research answers a problem related to family relations in terms of resorting to customs in alimony, housing, clothing, and others...which results in disputes that may lead to some of them in the courts and may end in divorce. The aim of the research was to 1 - presenting a knowledge system related to the semantics of the good-natured in order to contribute to reshaping a mature mentality of the spouses that controls the relationship between them in the event of disagreement. 2 - and to shed light on the dimensions and limits of what is textually known and what is known by convention in the family. 3 - Emphasis on that good practice is mutual. Between both husband and wife, this assignment is not limited to one without the other. The inductive approach was adopted by collecting the relevant Qur’anic verses and mentioning the sayings of the commentators and jurists, the analytical approach in understanding the semantics of the words and the directives of the interpreters, and the deductive approach in order to reach comprehensive controls that serve the general objective of the research, and the research ended with a set of results and recommendations, including: Considering the custom that does not contradict A legal text is one of the considered rules in controlling relations between spouses. Provided that it falls under the husband’s ability and energy, and that it is something that has spread among people, and applies to the family like him. The Noble Qur’an - Ten Laws - Family Relationship - Rights between spouses - Custom and its effect between spouses.

2021 ◽  
pp. 46-55
Ahmad Izzuddin Abu Bakar

Scholars have different opinions on the function of weak hadith in the construction of law. Thus, the question about its usage in determining the meaning of a hadith arises. This is due to the existence of an agreed method that explains a hadith based on relevant hadiths. This study will look at the practice of authoritative sources of commentaries books in understanding every matter that is attributed to the Prophet SAW. It used a qualitative approach with the methodology of content analysis. The findings show that the usage of weak hadith at least plays two roles. First, the weak hadith serves to weight one of many conflicting hadith's meaning along with other Islamic legal text. Secondly, it becomes evidence for a meaning that has probability or iḥtimāl in a hadith that it may convey. There are three conditions that have been set for the hadiths that can be used. First, it cannot be categorized as very weak. Second, the meanings of the hadith are stated by other evidence. Third, the meaning of the hadith does not contradict the hadith that is in a higher status.

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