error correction
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Hasan Aldiabat ◽  
Nedal Al-ababneh

In this paper, the bandwidth density of misaligned free space optical interconnects (FSOIs) system with and without coding under a fixed bit error rate is considered. In particular, we study the effect of using error correction codes of various codeword lengths on the bandwidth density and misalignment tolerance of the FSOIs system in the presence of higher order modes. Moreover, the paper demonstrates the use of the fill factor of the detector array as a design parameter to optimize the bandwidth density of the communication. The numerical results demonstrate that the bandwidth density improves significantly with coding and the improvement is highly dependent on the used codeword length and code rate. In addition, the results clearly show the optimum fill factor values that achieve the maximum bandwidth density and misalignment tolerance of the system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 214
Fadilla Muhammad Mahdi

This study aims to identify the determinants of non-performing financing (NPF) in Islamic banks in Indonesia. The study objects are the Islamic banking industry during the first quarter of 2008 until the third quarter of 2019. The variables in this study are inflation, growth of Gross Domestic Product (PDB), and Bank Indonesia rate. The statistic method used is the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The result shows that inflation shock significantly affects the trend of NPF, while others do not give significant effect to NPF of Islamic Banking.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Lanlan Cui ◽  
Fei Wu ◽  
Xiaojian Liu ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Renzhi Xiao ◽  

Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been widely adopted in NAND flash in recent years to enhance data reliability. There are two types of decoding, hard-decision and soft-decision decoding. However, for the two types, their error correction capability degrades due to inaccurate log-likelihood ratio (LLR) . To improve the LLR accuracy of LDPC decoding, this article proposes LLR optimization schemes, which can be utilized for both hard-decision and soft-decision decoding. First, we build a threshold voltage distribution model for 3D floating gate (FG) triple level cell (TLC) NAND flash. Then, by exploiting the model, we introduce a scheme to quantize LLR during hard-decision and soft-decision decoding. And by amplifying a portion of small LLRs, which is essential in the layer min-sum decoder, more precise LLR can be obtained. For hard-decision decoding, the proposed new modes can significantly improve the decoder’s error correction capability compared with traditional solutions. Soft-decision decoding starts when hard-decision decoding fails. For this part, we study the influence of the reference voltage arrangement of LLR calculation and apply the quantization scheme. The simulation shows that the proposed approach can reduce frame error rate (FER) for several orders of magnitude.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rita Rani Chopra

PurposeThe study aims to evaluate the long- vs short-run relationships between crops' production (output) and crops' significant inputs such as land use, agricultural water use (AWU) and gross irrigated area in India during the period 1981–2018.Design/methodology/approachThe study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to estimate the co-integration among the variables. The study uses the error correction model (ECM), which integrates the short-run dynamics with the long-run equilibrium.FindingsThe ARDL bounds test of co-integration confirms the strong evidence of the long-run relationship among the variables. Empirical results show the positive and significant relationship of crops' production with land use and gross irrigated area. The statistically significant error correction term (ECT) validates the speed of adjustment of the empirical models in the long-run.Research limitations/implicationsThe study suggests that the decision-makers must understand potential trade-offs between human needs and environmental impacts to ensure food for the growing population in India.Originality/valueFor a clear insight into the impact of climate change on crops' production, the current study incorporates the climate variables such as annual rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature. Further, the study considered agro-chemicals, i.e. fertilizers and pesticides, concerning their negative impacts on increased agricultural production and the environment.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Svitlana Matsenko ◽  
Oleksiy Borysenko ◽  
Sandis Spolitis ◽  
Aleksejs Udalcovs ◽  
Lilita Gegere ◽  

Forward error correction (FEC) codes combined with high-order modulator formats, i.e., coded modulation (CM), are essential in optical communication networks to achieve highly efficient and reliable communication. The task of providing additional error control in the design of CM systems with high-performance requirements remains urgent. As an additional control of CM systems, we propose to use indivisible error detection codes based on a positional number system. In this work, we evaluated the indivisible code using the average probability method (APM) for the binary symmetric channel (BSC), which has the simplicity, versatility and reliability of the estimate, which is close to reality. The APM allows for evaluation and compares indivisible codes according to parameters of correct transmission, and detectable and undetectable errors. Indivisible codes allow for the end-to-end (E2E) control of the transmission and processing of information in digital systems and design devices with a regular structure and high speed. This study researched a fractal decoder device for additional error control, implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) software with FEC for short-reach optical interconnects with multilevel pulse amplitude (PAM-M) modulated with Gray code mapping. Indivisible codes with natural redundancy require far fewer hardware costs to develop and implement encoding and decoding devices with a sufficiently high error detection efficiency. We achieved a reduction in hardware costs for a fractal decoder by using the fractal property of the indivisible code from 10% to 30% for different n while receiving the reciprocal of the golden ratio.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 441-458
Robert Long

Background and Purpose: In order to compete with native speakers, EFL and ESL students are under more pressure to produce native-like academic papers. This has led to more reliance on online grammar checkers, but these can be ineffective with regards to identifying and giving feedback on particular grammatical forms, phrasing and issues relating to style. Language learners may not be effectively correcting these errors. Hence, this study aims to examine the effectiveness of one online grammar checker,, with that of self-editing.   Methodology: This case study employed a descriptive approach to data analysis. 199 essays were collected from undergraduates at four universities in Kyushu, dated from April, 2019 to January, 2020.  99 essays were proofed by an online grammar checker, while 100 essays were self-edited. The English proficiency level of the participants was at the lower to intermediate range (i.e., TOEIC 300 to a TOEIC 500). The online grammar checker Grammarly was utilized by all participants to minimize issues relating to feedback. In the analysis of data, the complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) of the essays was assessed in order to examine the significant changes between the first and other drafts, and the types of errors produced.   Findings: Results showed that there were no significant differences found in terms of the methods of editing, although the participants who employed online grammar checkers had better results. It was also shown that there were no significant differences in terms of syntactical complexity with either method of editing. There were fewer errors committed by the participants who self-edited, but there were no significant differences in the edited drafts with regards to errors/100 ratios, error-free clauses, and error-free clause ratios. The study showed marginal differences between the two methods of proofing but indicated that online tools can be useful for identifying certain grammatical errors.   Contributions: This paper argues that educators need to work more with EFL learners on the editorial and proofing process, but online grammar checkers may be a useful pedagogical tool to help low-proficient L2 learners.   Keywords: Writing quality, editing, online grammar checkers, proofing, syntactical complexity.   Cite as: Long, R. (2022). Online grammar checkers versus self-editing: An investigation of error correction rates and writing quality. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 441-458.

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