implicit and explicit
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2022 ◽  
Jesús Lucia-Tamudo ◽  
Gustavo Cárdenas ◽  
Nuria Anguita-Ortiz ◽  
Sergio Díaz-Tendero ◽  
Juan J. Nogueira

The determination of the redox properties of nucleobases is of paramount importance to get insight into the charge-transfer processes in which they are involved, as those occurring in DNA-inspired biosensors. Although many theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted, the value of the one-electron oxidation potentials of nucleobases is not well defined. Moreover, the most appropriate theoretical protocol to model the redox properties has not been established yet. In this work, we have implemented and evaluated different static and dynamic approaches to compute the one-electron oxidation potentials of solvated nucleobases. In the static framework, two thermodynamic cycles have been tested to assess their accuracy against the direct determination of oxidation potentials from the adiabatic ionization energies. Then, the introduction of vibrational sampling, the effect of implicit and explicit solvation models, and the application of the Marcus theory have been analyzed through dynamic methods. The results revealed that the static direct determination provides more accurate results than thermodynamic cycles. Moreover, the effect of sampling has not shown to be relevant, and the results are improved within the dynamic framework when the Marcus theory is applied, especially in explicit solvent, with respect to the direct approach. Finally, the presence of different tautomers in water does not affect significantly the one-electron oxidation potentials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Antje B. M. Gerdes ◽  
Laura-Ashley Fraunfelter ◽  
Melissa Braband ◽  
Georg W. Alpers

One of the most robust findings in psychopathology is the fact that specific phobias are more prevalent in women than in men. Although there are several theoretical accounts for biological and social contributions to this gender difference, empirical data are surprisingly limited. Interestingly, there is evidence that individuals with stereotypical feminine characteristics are more fearful than those with stereotypical masculine characteristics; this is beyond biological sex. Because gender role stereotypes are reinforced by parental behavior, we aimed to examine the relationship of maternal gender stereotypes and children’s fear. Dyads of 38 mothers and their daughters (between ages 6 and 10) were included. We assessed maternal implicit and explicit gender stereotypes as well as their daughters’ self-reported general fearfulness, specific fear of snakes, and approach behavior toward a living snake. First, mothers’ fear of snakes significantly correlated with their daughters’ fear of snakes. Second, mothers’ gender stereotypes significantly correlated with their daughters’ self-reported fear. Specifically, maternal implicit gender stereotypes were associated with daughters’ fear of snakes and fear ratings in response to the snake. Moreover, in children, self-reported fear correlated with avoidance of the fear-relevant animal. Together, these results provide first evidence for a potential role of parental gender stereotypes in the development and maintenance of fear in their offspring.

2022 ◽  
Zhenni Li ◽  
Leonie Terfurth ◽  
Joshua Pepe Woller ◽  
Eva Wiese

Beyond conscious beliefs and goals, automatic cognitive processes shape our social encounters, and interactions with complex machines like social robots are no exception. With this in mind, it is surprising that research in human-robot interaction (HRI) almost exclusively uses explicit measures, such as subjective ratings and questionnaires, to assess human attitudes towards robots - seemingly ignoring the importance of implicit measures. This is particularly true for research focusing on the question whether or not humans are willing to attribute complex mental states mind perception, such as agency (i.e., the capacity to plan and act) and experience (i.e., the capacity to sense and feel), to robotic agents. In the current study, we (i) created the mind perception implicit association test (MP-IAT) to examine subconscious attributions of mental capacities to agents of different degrees of human-likeness (here: human vs. humanoid robot), and (ii) compared the outcomes of the MP-IAT to explicit mind perception ratings of the same agents.Results indicate that (i) already at the subconscious level, robots are associated with lower levels of agency and experience compared to humans, and that (ii) implicit and explicit measures of mind perception are not significantly correlated. This suggests that mind perception (i) has an implicit component that can be measured using implicit tests like the IAT and (ii) might be difficult to modulate via design or experimental procedures due to its fast-acting, automatic nature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sara Plakolm Erlač ◽  
Valentin Bucik ◽  
Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

The present study is the first to examine both the implicit and explicit self-concept of identity diffusion in a sample of adolescent patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A clinical sample of adolescent girls with diagnosed BPD (N = 30; M age = 15.9 years) and a sample of girls with a healthy personality development (N = 33; M age = 16.6 years) completed an implicit association test (IAT) that was adjusted to identity diffusion, the core of BPD. Common domains of child and adolescent psychopathology and core components of BPD were assessed using self-reports on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children—11 (BPFSC-11) and the Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence (AIDA). BPD patients scored significantly higher on explicit measures of borderline pathology than girls with a healthy personality development. A crucial finding for this study was that girls with BPD had a significantly lower implicit preference for stability than their counterparts in the control group. Moreover, explicit measures of borderline personality pathology were significantly correlated with an implicit measure of identity diffusion, the core of BPD. However, when looking at the predictive ability of implicit and explicit measures, only explicit identity diffusion was significantly associated with borderline features. Our data suggests that adolescent girls with BPD differ from healthy individuals not only in their conscious representation but also in their implicit representation of the self with regard to BPD related characteristics, which further advances the need for the identification of at-risk adolescents.

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