Gas Shale
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 1497-1507
Shan Huang ◽  
Xinhua Ma ◽  
Hongzhi Yang ◽  
Jianfa Wu ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-68
Jiale Zhao ◽  
Mengdi Sun ◽  
Zhejun Pan ◽  
Bo Liu ◽  
Mehdi Ostadhassan ◽  

Ying Mu ◽  
Zhiming Hu ◽  
Rui Shen ◽  
Jin Chang ◽  
Xianggang Duan ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (11) ◽  
pp. 815-822
Partha Pratim Mandal ◽  
Joel Sarout ◽  
Reza Rezaee

In recent years, short-term creep parameters determined in the laboratory from cylindrical gas shale samples subjected to triaxial (in-situ) stress conditions have been used successfully to infer long-term deformation and stress relaxation at the reservoir scale across geologic time scales. Due to the viscoelastic formalism, both the laboratory creep response and field-scale stress relaxation can be modeled with power law functions of time involving the elastic compliance of the shale B, the time-dependence exponent n, and the amount of total strain ∊. Gas shales often exhibit a high specific surface area associated with their high content in clay minerals and/or total organic carbon (TOC). The low-pressure nitrogen adsorption technique can be used advantageously to estimate specific surface area (SN2); i.e., it is a relatively fast and cost-effective measurement conducted on powdered samples of shale material. A robust global empirical correlation between gas shale creep parameters and SN2 emerges from the analysis of laboratory data collected from multiple gas shale formations in Australia (the prospective Goldwyer Formation) and the United States (Barnett, Haynesville, and Eagle Ford formations), and spanning a broad range of clay content, organic matter, maturity, and porosity values. This data set also shows that the summed fractions of clay minerals, TOC, and porosity, the so-called weak phase fraction, correlates nearly as well with primary creep parameters. The weak phase fraction can also be estimated from faster and more cost-effective measurements or from well logs. To evaluate its predictive capacity, the key correlation between SN2 and creep parameters is used in a case study to predict the magnitude of present-day least principal stress Shmin across six depth intervals/lithologic layers in a prolific unconventional shale formation in the northeastern United States. Several Shmin measurements are available for verification, and our approach successfully captures the observed layered variation of stress with depth.

2021 ◽  
Fadhil N. Sadooni ◽  
Hamad Al-Saad Al-Kuwari ◽  
Ahmad Sakhaee-Pour ◽  
Wael S. Matter ◽  
Indra Gunawan

Gas shale is the future hydrocarbon reservoir of Qatar. The Qatari geologic section has had important successions of gas shale at different geologic times including the Eocene Midra shale, the Cretaceous Ratawi and Nahr Umr, and the Paleozoic Qusaibah and Unayzah formations. Shale samples were collected from the outcrops of the Midra Shale in Dukhan and Umm Bab areas. Samples were subjected to geochemical analyses using XRD and RXF. Selected samples were examined under SEM and TEM microscopes. All the studied samples contain palygorskite as the main mineral and, in some cases, the only mineral present, as indicated by X-ray diffraction patterns. XRF analysis shows palygorskite range from ideal palygorskite (equal aluminum and magnesium content) to aluminous palygorskite where no magnesium is recorded. The most common other minor minerals are halite, quartz, calcite, and other clay minerals: illite, smectite and sepiolite. The palygorskite chain phyllo silicates results in a fibrous habit with channels running parallel to the fiber length. Images from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) clearly show the presence of bundled lath-like crystals of palygorskite 5 to 20 nm in width and several micrometers in length. The Midra Shale was deposited in a shallow marine shelf that was subjected to clastic influx from the nearby land. Although, the Midra contains many elements that support deposition under marine conditions such as large foraminifera and shark teeth, the presence of fully developed shale horizons indicate a mixed marine-continental depositional setting. Most of the micropores are channels associated with the palygorskite laths as can be seen from the TEM images or some dissolution pores that resulted from halite and gypsum dissolution by meteoric water.

2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (19) ◽  
pp. 15842-15855
Muhammed Rashik Mojid ◽  
Berihun Mamo Negash ◽  
Kawthar Adewumi Babatunde ◽  
Tigabwa Y. Ahmed ◽  
Shiferaw Regassa Jufar

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 300 ◽  
pp. 121006
Fengyang Xiong ◽  
Bohyun Hwang ◽  
Zhenxue Jiang ◽  
Derrick James ◽  
Hailong Lu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Yufei Chen ◽  
Changbao Jiang ◽  
Juliana Y. Leung ◽  
Andrew K. Wojtanowicz ◽  
Dongming Zhang ◽  

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