Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are the most advanced bio-nanomaterial utilized in various applications due to their unique physical and structural properties, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. It has been isolated from diverse sources including plants as well as textile wastes using different isolation techniques, such as acid hydrolysis, high-intensity ultrasonication, and steam explosion process. Here, we planned to extract and isolate CNFs from carpet wastes using a supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc.CO2) treatment approach. The mechanism of defibrillation and defragmentation caused by Sc.CO2 treatment was also explained. The morphological analysis of bleached fibers showed that Sc.CO2 treatment induced several longitudinal fractions along with each fiber due to the supercritical condition of temperature and pressure. Such conditions removed th fiber’s impurities and produced more fragile fibers compared to untreated samples. The particle size analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) confirm the effect of Sc.CO2 treatment. The average fiber length and diameter of Sc.CO2 treated CNFs were 53.72 and 7.14 nm, respectively. In comparison, untreated samples had longer fiber length and diameter (302.87 and 97.93 nm). The Sc.CO2-treated CNFs also had significantly higher thermal stability by more than 27% and zeta potential value of −38.9± 5.1 mV, compared to untreated CNFs (−33.1 ± 3.0 mV). The vibrational band frequency and chemical composition analysis data confirm the presence of cellulose function groups without any contamination with lignin and hemicellulose. The Sc.CO2 treatment method is a green approach for enhancing the isolation yield of CNFs from carpet wastes and produce better quality nanocellulose for advanced applications.
Introduction. Starfish (Asteroidea) are marine echinoderms with more than 160 species. Starfish are a valuable source of protein and fats. The present research featured the chemical composition of starfish, which can be used as a commercial source of lipids.
Study objects and methods. The study defined the optimal parameters for extracting the lipid fraction of Lysastrosoma anthosticta with supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as the qualitative composition of the obtained extracts.
Results and discussion. The yield of fatty acids obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide co-solvent was 1.8 times higher than that obtained with standard extraction according to the Folch method. The content of impurities was lower than in the samples with chloroform-methanol system. The polyunsaturated fatty acids isolated from L. anthosticta mainly belonged to ω-3 (18.0%), ω-6 (11.7%), ω-7 (21.2%), ω-9 (10.1%), and ω-11 (6.5%). The rest was saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic (14%) and myristic (6%). The qualitative composition of the lipid fraction did not depend significantly from the isolation method. However, the supercritical extraction increased the product yield, extraction rate, and the quality of the extraction residue. Supercritical carbon dioxide left a dry residue, which had no typical smell and was brittle enough for grinding. Such residue can presumably be used to produce protein concentrate.
Conclusion. Supercritical extraction with chloroform can be recommended to isolate fatty acids from marine organisms at 60°C and 400 bar.
The optimization of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of cannabinoids, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), was investigated in a fractional factorial design study. It is hypothesized that four main parameters (temperature, pressure, dry flower weight, and extraction time) play an important role. Therefore, these parameters were screened at predetermined low, medium, and high relative levels. The density of scCO2 was used as a factor for the extraction of cannabinoids by changing the pressure and temperature. The robustness of the mathematical model was also evaluated by regression analysis. The quantification of major (cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA-A)) and minor (cannabidivann (CBDV), tetrahydrocannabivann (THCV), cannabigerolic acid (CBG), cannabigerol (CBGA), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichomere (CBC)) cannabinoids in the scCO2 extract was performed by RP-HPLC analysis. From the model response, it was identified that long extraction time is a significant parameter to obtain a high yield of cannabinoids in the scCO2 extract. Higher relative concentrations of CBD(A) (0.78 and 2.41% w/w, respectively) and THC(A) (0.084 and 0.048% w/w, respectively) were found when extraction was performed at high relative pressures and temperatures (250 bar and 45 °C). The higher yield of CBD(A) compared to THC(A) can be attributed to the extract being a CBD-dominant cannabis strain. The study revealed that conventional organic solvent extraction, e.g., ethanol gives a marginally higher yield of cannabinoids from the extract compared to scCO2 extraction. However, scCO2 extraction generates a cleaner (chlorophyll-free) and organic solvent-free extract, which requires less downstream processing, such as purification from waxes and chlorophyll.