Water Saturation
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bo Gao ◽  
Ethan T. Coon

Abstract. Permafrost degradation within a warming climate poses a significant environmental threat through both the permafrost carbon feedback and damage to human communities and infrastructure. Understanding this threat relies on better understanding and numerical representation of thermo-hydrological permafrost processes, and the subsequent accurate prediction of permafrost dynamics. All models include simplified assumptions, implying a tradeoff between model complexity and prediction accuracy. The main purpose of this work is to investigate this tradeoff when applying the following commonly made assumptions: (1) assuming equal density of ice and liquid water in frozen soil; (2) neglecting the effect of cryosuction in unsaturated freezing soil; and (3) neglecting advective heat transport during soil freezing and thaw. This study designed a set of 62 numerical experiments using the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS v1.2) to evaluate the effects of these choices on permafrost hydrological outputs, including both integrated and pointwise quantities. Simulations were conducted under different climate conditions and soil properties from three different sites in both column- and hillslope-scale configurations. Results showed that amongst the three physical assumptions, soil cryosuction is the most crucial yet commonly ignored process. Neglecting cryosuction, on average, can cause 10 % ~ 20 % error in predicting evaporation, 50 % ~ 60 % error in discharge, 10 % ~ 30 % error in thaw depth, and 10 % ~ 30 % error in soil temperature at 1 m beneath surface. The prediction error for subsurface temperature and water saturation is more obvious at hillslope scales due to the presence of lateral flux. By comparison, using equal ice-liquid density has a minor impact on most hydrological variables, but significantly affects soil water saturation with an averaged 5 % ~ 15 % error. Neglecting advective heat transport presents the least error, 5 % or even much lower, in most variables for a general Arctic tundra system, and can decrease the simulation time at hillslope scales by 40 % ~ 80 %. By challenging these commonly made assumptions, this work provides permafrost hydrology modelers important context for better choosing the appropriate process representation for a given modeling experiment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-68
Author(s):  
Jiale Zhao ◽  
Mengdi Sun ◽  
Zhejun Pan ◽  
Bo Liu ◽  
Mehdi Ostadhassan ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-91
Author(s):  
Manuel Baumgartner ◽  
Christian Rolf ◽  
Jens-Uwe Grooß ◽  
Julia Schneider ◽  
Tobias Schorr ◽  
...  

Abstract. Laboratory measurements at the AIDA cloud chamber and airborne in situ observations suggest that the homogeneous freezing thresholds at low temperatures are possibly higher than expected from the so-called “Koop line”. This finding is of importance, because the ice onset relative humidity affects the cirrus cloud coverage and, at the very low temperatures of the tropical tropopause layer, together with the number of ice crystals also the transport of water vapor into the stratosphere. Both the appearance of cirrus clouds and the amount of stratospheric water feed back to the radiative budget of the atmosphere. In order to explore the enhanced ice onset humidities, we re-examine the entire homogeneous ice nucleation process, ice onset, and nucleated crystal numbers, by means of a two-moment microphysics scheme embedded in the trajectory-based model (CLaMS-Ice) as follows: the well-understood and described theoretical framework of homogeneous ice nucleation includes certain formulations of the water activity of the freezing aerosol particles and the saturation vapor pressure of water with respect to liquid water. However, different formulations are available for both parameters. Here, we present extensive sensitivity simulations testing the influence of three different formulations for the water activity and four for the water saturation on homogeneous ice nucleation. We found that the number of nucleated ice crystals is almost independent of these formulations but is instead sensitive to the size distribution of the freezing aerosol particles. The ice onset humidities, also depending on the particle size, are however significantly affected by the choices of the water activity and water saturation, in particular at cold temperatures ≲205 K. From the CLaMS-Ice sensitivity simulations, we here provide combinations of water saturation and water activity formulations suitable to reproduce the new, enhanced freezing line.


2021 ◽  
pp. 4702-4711
Author(s):  
Asmaa Talal Fadel ◽  
Madhat E. Nasser

     Reservoir characterization requires reliable knowledge of certain fundamental properties of the reservoir. These properties can be defined or at least inferred by log measurements, including porosity, resistivity, volume of shale, lithology, water saturation, and permeability of oil or gas. The current research is an estimate of the reservoir characteristics of Mishrif Formation in Amara Oil Field, particularly well AM-1, in south eastern Iraq. Mishrif Formation (Cenomanin-Early Touronin) is considered as the prime reservoir in Amara Oil Field. The Formation is divided into three reservoir units (MA, MB, MC). The unit MB is divided into two secondary units (MB1, MB2) while the unit MC is also divided into two secondary units (MC1, MC2). Using Geoframe software, the available well log images (sonic, density, neutron, gamma ray, spontaneous potential, and resistivity logs) were digitized and updated. Petrophysical properties, such as porosity, saturation of water, saturation of hydrocarbon, etc. were calculated and explained. The total porosity was measured using the density and neutron log, and then corrected to measure the effective porosity by the volume content of clay. Neutron -density cross-plot showed that Mishrif Formation lithology consists predominantly of limestone. The reservoir water resistivity (Rw) values of the Formation were calculated using Pickett-Plot method.   


Author(s):  
Md Rezouanul Kabir ◽  
Morozov A.V. ◽  
Md Saif Kabir

The mechanisms of boric acid mass transfer in a VVER-1200 reactor core are studied in this work in the event of a major circulatory pipeline rupture and loss of all AC power. The VVER-1200's passive core cooling technology is made up of two levels of hydro accumulators. They use boric acid solution with a concentration of 16 g H3BO3/kg H2O to control the reactivity. Because of the long duration of the accident process, the coolant with high boron content starts boiling and steam with low concentration of boric acid departs the core. So, conditions could arise in the reactor for possible accumulation and subsequent crystallization of boric acid, causing the core heat removal process to deteriorate. Calculations were carried out to estimate the likelihood of H3BO3 build-up and subsequent crystallization in the core of the VVER reactor. According to the calculations, during emergency the boric acid concentration in the reactor core is 0.153 kg/ kg and 0.158 kg/kg in both the events of solubility of steam and without solubility of steam respectively and it does not exceed the solubility limit which is about 0.415 kg/kg at water saturation temperature. No precipitation of boric acid occurs within this time during the whole emergency process. Therefore, findings of the study can be used to verify whether the process of decay heat removal is affected or not.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Romanenko

Abstract. Obtaining wood with high performance properties on the basis of chemical and mechanical action as a result of optimization of technological processes and the use of temperature exposure. The initial raw material is hardwood (aspen, alder), which are little used in construction and in the production of finishing materials. The condition for obtaining wood with high operating properties (increasing density, strength, reducing water saturation, ensuring the dimensional stability of samples for a long time) is the ability of wood as a natural polymer to change properties under the combined effect of temperature and pressure.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 291-295
Author(s):  
Denis A. Pakholik ◽  
Oleg Yu. Kochnov ◽  
Valery V. Kolesov ◽  
Vladimir V. Fomichev

There are various ways to obtain Mo-99. Some of them are widely used in industrial production, others are in the research stage with the aim of increasing the product yield. The main industrial method for obtaining Mo-99 using a nuclear reactor is the fragmentation method. This method provides for the presence of a uranium target and a nuclear reactor. The target is placed in the channel of the reactor core and irradiated with neutrons for the required time. After that, the target is removed from the channel to the “hot” chamber for the chemical separation of Mo-99. This is how Mo-99 is obtained practically all over the world. The paper considers the fragmentation method for producing Mo-99, which is implemented on the basis of the engineering and technological complex of the VVR-c research nuclear reactor. In order to increase the yield of Mo-99, a modernized model of the “tube-in-tube” target is proposed. The assessment of the production of Mo-99 and the cooling efficiency of the modernized target was carried out. The calculations were performed using the VisualBurnOut and Ansys CFX software packages. Computational studies have shown an increase in the energy release and the amount of the produced Mo-99 isotope in the target of the modernized design. In the most stressed zones, the target wall temperature exceeds the water saturation temperature. Surface boiling occurs in these zones. As a result, turbulization and mixing of the near-wall boundary water layer increases. This improves heat dissipation.


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