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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuru Chang ◽  
Philip F. Harmon ◽  
Danielle D. Treadwell ◽  
Daniel Carrillo ◽  
Ali Sarkhosh ◽  
...  

In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to food safety and organic horticulture. Thus, people are looking for natural products to manage plant diseases, pests, and weeds. Essential oils (EOs) or EO-based products are potentially promising candidates for biocontrol agents due to their safe, bioactive, biodegradable, ecologically, and economically viable properties. Born of necessity or commercial interest to satisfy market demand for natural products, this emerging technology is highly anticipated, but its application has been limited without the benefit of a thorough analysis of the scientific evidence on efficacy, scope, and mechanism of action. This review covers the uses of EOs as broad-spectrum biocontrol agents in both preharvest and postharvest systems. The known functions of EOs in suppressing fungi, bacteria, viruses, pests, and weeds are briefly summarized. Related results and possible modes of action from recent research are listed. The weaknesses of applying EOs are also discussed, such as high volatility and low stability, low water solubility, strong influence on organoleptic properties, and phytotoxic effects. Therefore, EO formulations and methods of incorporation to enhance the strengths and compensate for the shortages are outlined. This review also concludes with research directions needed to better understand and fully evaluate EOs and provides an outlook on the prospects for future applications of EOs in organic horticulture production.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2113120119
Author(s):  
Florian Hubrich ◽  
Nina M. Bösch ◽  
Clara Chepkirui ◽  
Brandon I. Morinaka ◽  
Michael Rust ◽  
...  

Lipopeptides represent a large group of microbial natural products that include important antibacterial and antifungal drugs and some of the most-powerful known biosurfactants. The vast majority of lipopeptides comprise cyclic peptide backbones N-terminally equipped with various fatty acyl moieties. The known compounds of this type are biosynthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, giant enzyme complexes that assemble their products in a non–gene-encoded manner. Here, we report the genome-guided discovery of ribosomally derived, fatty-acylated lipopeptides, termed selidamides. Heterologous reconstitution of three pathways, two from cyanobacteria and one from an arctic, ocean-derived alphaproteobacterium, allowed structural characterization of the probable natural products and suggest that selidamides are widespread over various bacterial phyla. The identified representatives feature cyclic peptide moieties and fatty acyl units attached to (hydroxy)ornithine or lysine side chains by maturases of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. In contrast to nonribosomal lipopeptides that are usually produced as congener mixtures, the three selidamides are selectively fatty acylated with C10, C12, or C16 fatty acids, respectively. These results highlight the ability of ribosomal pathways to emulate products with diverse, nonribosomal-like features and add to the biocatalytic toolbox for peptide drug improvement and targeted discovery.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 865
Author(s):  
Jinsoo Kim ◽  
Dohee Ahn ◽  
Sang J. Chung

Depletion of protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB), a serine/threonine protein phosphatase and potent adipogenic activator, suppresses the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Therefore, PPP1CB is considered as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. We screened 1033 natural products for PPP1CB inhibitors and identified chebulinic acid, which is abundantly present in the seeds of Euphoria longana and fruits of Terminalia chebula. Chebulinic acid strongly inhibited the hydrolysis of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by PPP1CB (IC50 = 300 nM) and demonstrated potent antiadipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Additional studies have demonstrated that chebulinic acid suppresses early differentiation by downregulating key transcription factors that control adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggested that chebulinic acid may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating obesity by inhibiting PPP1CB activity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Riccardo F. Romersi ◽  
Sascha C. T. Nicklisch

An organism’s diet is a major route of exposure to both beneficial nutrients and toxic environmental chemicals and natural products. The uptake of dietary xenobiotics in the intestine is prevented by transporters of the Solute Carrier (SLC) and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) family. Several environmental chemicals and natural toxins have been identified to induce expression of these defense transporters in fish and aquatic invertebrates, indicating that they are substrates and can be eliminated. However, certain environmental chemicals, termed Transporter-Interfering Chemicals or TICs, have recently been shown to bind to and inhibit fish and mammalian P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), thereby sensitizing cells to toxic chemical accumulation. If and to what extent other xenobiotic defense or nutrient uptake transporters can also be inhibited by dietary TICs is still unknown. To date, most chemical-transporter interaction studies in aquatic organisms have focused on ABC-type transporters, while molecular interactions of xenobiotics with SLC-type transporters are poorly understood. In this perspective, we summarize current advances in the identification, localization, and functional analysis of protective MXR transporters and nutrient uptake systems in the digestive system of fish and aquatic invertebrates. We collate the existing literature data on chemically induced transporter gene expression and summarize the molecular interactions of xenobiotics with these transport systems. Our review emphasizes the need for standardized assays in a broader panel of commercially important fish and seafood species to better evaluate the effects of TIC and other xenobiotic interactions with physiological substrates and MXR transporters across the aquatic ecosystem and predict possible transfer to humans through consumption.


Author(s):  
Liliana Aguilar Marcelino ◽  
Jesús Antonio Pineda Alegría ◽  
David Osvaldo Salinas-Sánchez ◽  
Víctor Manuel Hernández Velázquez ◽  
Gonzalo Iván Silva Aguayo ◽  
...  

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the main pest of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poaceae), in Mexico. To control this insect, farmers currently use synthetic chemical insecticides, which are toxic to humans and biodiversity. However, natural products are a promising potential source of safer alternative means to control different agricultural pests. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of contact by fumigation of pure molecules of four commercial fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, pentadecanoic and linoleic acids), the phytosterol ß -sitosterol, and the flavonoid rutin. The results showed that fatty acids were the most effective against M. sacchari ; the highest mortality rate (85%) was produced by linoleic acid and the LC 50 was 1,181 ppm, followed by stearic and palmitic acids with mortality percentages of 74 and 63%, respectively, at a concentration of 2,500 ppm at 72 h. The positive control, imidacloprid, had 100% mortality in 24 h and the tween 20 negative control exhibited 4% mortality in 72 h. Our results show that commercial fatty acids are effective against adults of M. sacchari , and can be considered an environmentally friendly alternative to the frequent use of synthetic chemical insecticides.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-2
Author(s):  
Arielle Cristina Arena ◽  
Candida Aparecida Leite Kassuya ◽  
Elisabete Castelon Konkiewitz ◽  
Edward Benjamin Ziff


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bin Wang ◽  
Jihua Xu ◽  
Shenhui Jiang ◽  
Yanbo Wang ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  
...  

Busulfan is currently an indispensable anti-cancer drug, but the side effects on male reproductive system are so serious. Meanwhile, red-fleshed apples are natural products with high anthocyanin content. In this research, we analyzed the effect of red-fleshed apple anthocyanin extract (RAAE) on busulfan-treated mice. Compared with the busulfan group, main plasma biochemical indicators were significantly improved after RAAE treatment. Compared with BA0 (busulfan without RAAE) group, total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione catalase (GSH-Px) in RAAE treatment groups were obviously increased, while the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly decreased in the RAAE groups. In addition, we found RAAE alleviated busulfan-disrupted spermatogenesis through improving genes expression which are important for spermatogenesis, such as DDX4, PGK2, and TP1. Furthermore, we found that RAAE increased beneficial bacteria Akkermansia and Lactobacillaceae, and significantly depleted harmful bacteria Erysipelotrichia. The correlation studies indicated that RAAE ameliorated busulfan-induced rise in LysoPC levels through regulating gut microbial community and their associated metabolites. In conclusion, this study extends our understanding of the alleviated effect of RAAE on busulfan-induced male reproductive dysfunction through regulating the relationships between gut microbiota and metabolites.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jose Aleman

Abstract Herein, we report, for the first time, a general, facile and environmentally friendly Minisci-type alkylation of N-heteroarenes under simple and straightforward electrochemical conditions using widely available alkyl halides as radical precursors. Primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl radicals have shown to be efficiently generated and coupled with a large variety of N-heteroarenes. The method presents a very high functional group tolerance, including various heterocyclic-based natural products, which highlights the robustness of the methodology. This applicability has been further proved in the synthesis of various interesting biologically valuable building blocks. In addition, we have proposed a mechanism based on different proofs and electrochemical evidences.


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