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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 199-207
Guliang Yang ◽  
Haiyan Zhong ◽  
Xinxin Xia ◽  
Zhiwen Qi ◽  
Chengzhang Wang ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. F. Costa ◽  
K. C. Gonçalves ◽  
E. F. L. C. Bailão ◽  
S. S. Caramori ◽  
M. C. Valadares ◽  

Abstract Plant-derived products can assist in the healing process of dermal wounds. It has been demonstrated that Hancornia speciosa latex present angiogenic, osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Then, it could contribute to the wound healing process. However, natural products in contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allergic and irritant potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex using in vitro assays. The obtained results showed that the H. speciosa serum fraction latex has a slightly irritant potential and is not cytotoxic neither allergenic for human cells. Moreover, we identified a remarkable low amount of proteins in this material in comparison to Hevea brasiliensis latex. This result could explain the non-allergenic potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex because proteins present in latex are the main responsible for allergy. This biomaterial could be used as a non-allergenic source for development of new medicines.

2022 ◽  
Garima Singh ◽  
Anjuli Calchera ◽  
Dominik Merges ◽  
Henrique Valim ◽  
Juergen Otte ◽  

Natural products of lichen-forming fungi are structurally diverse and have a variety of medicinal properties. Yet they a have limited implementation in industry as for most of the natural products, the corresponding genes remain unknown. Here we implement a long-read sequencing and bioinformatic approach to identify the biosynthetic gene cluster of the bioactive natural product gyrophoric acid (GA). Using 15 high-quality genomes representing nine GA-producing species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria, we identify the most likely GA cluster and investigate cluster gene organization and composition across the nine species. Our results show that GA clusters are promiscuous within Umbilicaria with only three genes that are conserved across species, including the PKS gene. In addition, our results suggest that the same cluster codes for different but structurally similar NPs, i.e., GA, umbilicaric acid and hiascic acid, bringing new evidence that lichen metabolite diversity is also generated through regulatory mechanisms at the molecular level. Ours is the first study to identify the most likely GA cluster. This information is essential for opening up avenues for biotechnological approaches to producing and modifying GA, and possibly other lichen compounds. We show that bioinformatics approaches are useful in linking genes and potentially associated natural products. Genome analyses help unlocking the pharmaceutical potential of organisms such as lichens, which are biosynthetically diverse, but slow growing, and usually uncultivable due to their symbiotic nature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 383-408
Renata Priscila Barros de Menezes ◽  
Jéssika de Oliveira Viana ◽  
Eugene Muratov ◽  
Luciana Scotti ◽  
Marcus Tullius Scotti

Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma; it is commonly caused by Schistosoma mansoni, which is transmitted by Bioamphalaria snails. Studies show that more than 200 million people are infected and that more than 90% of them live in Africa. Treatment with praziquantel has the best cost–benefit result on the market. However, hypersensitivity, allergy, and drug resistance are frequently presented after administration. From this perspective, ligand-based and structure-based virtual screening (VS) techniques were combined to select potentially active alkaloids against S. mansoni from an internal dataset (SistematX). A set of molecules with known activity against S. mansoni was selected from the ChEMBL database to create two different models with accuracy greater than 84%, enabling ligand-based VS of the alkaloid bank. Subsequently, structure-based VS was performed through molecular docking using four targets of the parasite. Finally, five consensus hits (i.e., five alkaloids with schistosomicidal potential), were selected. In addition, in silico evaluations of the metabolism, toxicity, and drug-like profile of these five selected alkaloids were carried out. Two of them, namely, 11,12-methylethylenedioxypropoxy and methyl-3-oxo-12-methoxy-n(1)-decarbomethoxy-14,15-didehydrochanofruticosinate, had plausible toxicity, metabolomics, and toxicity profiles. These two alkaloids could serve as starting points for the development of new schistosomicidal compounds based on natural products.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 515
Hua-Li Zuo ◽  
Hsi-Yuan Huang ◽  
Yang-Chi-Dung Lin ◽  
Xiao-Xuan Cai ◽  
Xiang-Jun Kong ◽  

Drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenases, play a pivotal role in pharmacokinetics. CYP450 enzymes can be affected by various xenobiotic substrates, which will eventually be responsible for most metabolism-based herb–herb or herb–drug interactions, usually involving competition with another drug for the same enzyme binding site. Compounds from herbal or natural products are involved in many scenarios in the context of such interactions. These interactions are decisive both in drug discovery regarding the synergistic effects, and drug application regarding unwanted side effects. Herein, this review was conducted as a comprehensive compilation of the effects of herbal ingredients on CYP450 enzymes. Nearly 500 publications reporting botanicals’ effects on CYP450s were collected and analyzed. The countries focusing on this topic were summarized, the identified herbal ingredients affecting enzyme activity of CYP450s, as well as methods identifying the inhibitory/inducing effects were reviewed. Inhibitory effects of botanicals on CYP450 enzymes may contribute to synergistic effects, such as herbal formulae/prescriptions, or lead to therapeutic failure, or even increase concentrations of conventional medicines causing serious adverse events. Conducting this review may help in metabolism-based drug combination discovery, and in the evaluation of the safety profile of natural products used therapeutically.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Joachim J. Hug ◽  
Louise Kjaerulff ◽  
Ronald Garcia ◽  
Rolf Müller

Marine myxobacteria present a virtually unexploited reservoir for the discovery of natural products with diverse biological functions and novel chemical scaffolds. We report here the isolation and structure elucidation of eight new deoxyenhygrolides (1–8) from the marine myxobacterium Plesiocystis pacifica DSM 14875T. The herein described deoxyenhygrolides C–J (1–8) feature a butenolide core with an ethyl residue at C-3 of the γ-lactone in contrast to the previously described derivatives, deoxyenhygrolides A and B, which feature an isobutyl residue at this position. The butenolide core is 2,4-substituted with a benzyl (1, 2 and 7), benzoyl (3 and 4) or benzyl alcohol (5, 6 and 8) moiety in the 2-position and a benzylidene (1–6) or benzylic hemiketal (7 and 8) in the 4-position. The description of these new deoxyenhygrolide derivatives, alongside genomic in silico investigation regarding putative biosynthetic genes, provides some new puzzle pieces on how this natural product class might be formed by marine myxobacteria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yuru Chang ◽  
Philip F. Harmon ◽  
Danielle D. Treadwell ◽  
Daniel Carrillo ◽  
Ali Sarkhosh ◽  

In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to food safety and organic horticulture. Thus, people are looking for natural products to manage plant diseases, pests, and weeds. Essential oils (EOs) or EO-based products are potentially promising candidates for biocontrol agents due to their safe, bioactive, biodegradable, ecologically, and economically viable properties. Born of necessity or commercial interest to satisfy market demand for natural products, this emerging technology is highly anticipated, but its application has been limited without the benefit of a thorough analysis of the scientific evidence on efficacy, scope, and mechanism of action. This review covers the uses of EOs as broad-spectrum biocontrol agents in both preharvest and postharvest systems. The known functions of EOs in suppressing fungi, bacteria, viruses, pests, and weeds are briefly summarized. Related results and possible modes of action from recent research are listed. The weaknesses of applying EOs are also discussed, such as high volatility and low stability, low water solubility, strong influence on organoleptic properties, and phytotoxic effects. Therefore, EO formulations and methods of incorporation to enhance the strengths and compensate for the shortages are outlined. This review also concludes with research directions needed to better understand and fully evaluate EOs and provides an outlook on the prospects for future applications of EOs in organic horticulture production.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2113120119
Florian Hubrich ◽  
Nina M. Bösch ◽  
Clara Chepkirui ◽  
Brandon I. Morinaka ◽  
Michael Rust ◽  

Lipopeptides represent a large group of microbial natural products that include important antibacterial and antifungal drugs and some of the most-powerful known biosurfactants. The vast majority of lipopeptides comprise cyclic peptide backbones N-terminally equipped with various fatty acyl moieties. The known compounds of this type are biosynthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, giant enzyme complexes that assemble their products in a non–gene-encoded manner. Here, we report the genome-guided discovery of ribosomally derived, fatty-acylated lipopeptides, termed selidamides. Heterologous reconstitution of three pathways, two from cyanobacteria and one from an arctic, ocean-derived alphaproteobacterium, allowed structural characterization of the probable natural products and suggest that selidamides are widespread over various bacterial phyla. The identified representatives feature cyclic peptide moieties and fatty acyl units attached to (hydroxy)ornithine or lysine side chains by maturases of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. In contrast to nonribosomal lipopeptides that are usually produced as congener mixtures, the three selidamides are selectively fatty acylated with C10, C12, or C16 fatty acids, respectively. These results highlight the ability of ribosomal pathways to emulate products with diverse, nonribosomal-like features and add to the biocatalytic toolbox for peptide drug improvement and targeted discovery.

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