clinicopathological characteristics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 813-819
Huiling Wang ◽  
Mian Lv ◽  
Yonghong Huang ◽  
Xiaoming Pan ◽  
Changyuan Wei

Objective: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been considered as the origin of tumor metastasis and recurrence, which always indicate a poor prognosis. There are three phenotypes of CTCs according on different epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, including epithelial, mesenchymal, and epithelial/mesenchymal (mixed phenotypic) CTCs. We intended to explore the relationship among CTC phenotypes and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods: Peripheral blood samples from 58 patients with DTC were collected, and CTCs were isolated by cell sizes. To identify phenotypes of CTCs, branched DNA signal amplification technology was adopted to capture and amplify target sequences, and then multiplex RNA-in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) assay was used to identify CTC phenotypes depended on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Results: The positive rate of CTCs was 77.59% in 58 DTC patients. Totally, 488 CTCs with detective phenotype were found. Among them, there were 121 (24.80%) epithelial CTCs, 67 (13.72%) mesenchymal CTCs, and 300 (61.48%) mixed phenotypic CTCs. An obvious increased epithelial CTCs was observed in male patients compared with female. Notably, CTCs were more prevailing in younger male patients with ETI and bilateral focus. Conclusions: The CTCs are common in DTC patients, and mixed phenotypic is the major phenotype, indicating that EMT is prevalent in DTC even though its prognosis was better than other epithelial tumors. Detection of CTC and its phenotypes might independently predict the prognosis of DTC.

Akikazu Yago ◽  
Yu Ohkura ◽  
Masaki Ueno ◽  
Kentoku Fujisawa ◽  
Yusuke Ogawa ◽  

Summary Background The long-term outcomes after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer remain uncertain and the optimal surveillance strategy after curative surgery remains controversial. Methods In this study, the clinicopathological characteristics of patients who underwent curative thoracic esophagectomy between 1991 and 2015 at Toranomon Hospital were retrospectively analyzed and reviewed until December 2020. We evaluated the accumulated data regarding the pattern and rates of recurrence and second malignancy. Results A total of 1054 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these, 97% were followed up for 5 years, and the outcomes after 25 years could be determined in 65.5%. Recurrence was diagnosed in 318 patients (30.2%), and the most common pattern was lymph node metastasis (n = 168, 52.8%). Recurrence was diagnosed within 1 year in 174 patients (54.7%) and within 3 years in 289 (90.9%). Second malignancy possibly occurred through the entire study period after esophagectomy even in early-stage cancer, keeping 2%–5% of the incidental risk. There was no significant difference in the prognosis between 3-year survivors with and without a second malignancy. Conclusions Most recurrences after resection of esophageal cancer occurred within 3 years regardless of disease stage. However, these patients have an ongoing risk of developing a second malignancy after esophagectomy. Further consideration is required regarding the efficacy of long-term surveillance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jinwu Peng ◽  
Qiuju Liang ◽  
Zhijie Xu ◽  
Yuan Cai ◽  
Bi Peng ◽  

Exosomes, the small extracellular vesicles, are released by multiple cell types, including tumor cells, and represent a novel avenue for intercellular communication via transferring diverse biomolecules. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were demonstrated to be enclosed in exosomes and therefore was protected from degradation. Such exosomal miRNAs can be transmitted to recipient cells where they could regulate multiple cancer-associated biological processes. Accumulative evidence suggests that exosomal miRNAs serve essential roles in modifying the glioma immune microenvironment and potentially affecting the malignant behaviors and therapeutic responses. As exosomal miRNAs are detectable in almost all kinds of biofluids and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics of glioma, they might be served as promising biomarkers for gliomas. We reviewed the novel findings regarding the biological functions of exosomal miRNAs during glioma pathogenesis and immune regulation. Furthermore, we elaborated on their potential clinical applications as biomarkers in glioma diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response prediction. Finally, we summarized the accessible databases that can be employed for exosome-associated miRNAs identification and functional exploration of cancers, including glioma.

Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 101 (2) ◽  
pp. e28490
Huimin Bai ◽  
Fang Yuan ◽  
Bing Liang ◽  
Hengzi Sun ◽  
Yutao Gao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Lei Sun ◽  
Jia-min Chen ◽  
Kun Yang ◽  
Liang Zhang ◽  
Zhi-yuan Ma ◽  

Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been recognized as one of the frequently occurring opportunistic infections (OIs) reported in the patients having human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). In addition, it has been identified as the factor leading to gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorder among HIV/AIDS population. CMV exhibits broad cell tropism in different organs. This study evaluated the CMV cell tropism and clinicopathological characteristics of CMV infection in the different GI regions in HIV/AIDS cases. Methods Using nucleic acid in situ hybridization (ISH), CMV was detected in the gastrointestinal mucosal biopsy samples. The paraffin-embedded samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Results A total of 32 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in this study. Fourteen of these patients underwent gastroscopy, while the remaining eighteen received colonoscopy. CMV-infected cells were observed at 46 GI sites. Among them, the colon was the region with the highest susceptibility to GI CMV infection (n = 12, 26.1%). The CMV giant cell inclusion bodies were detected in epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells, including histiocytes, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In the duodenum, there were markedly more positive epithelial cells than mesenchymal cells (p = 0.033). In contrast, in the esophagus (p = 0.030), cardia (p = 0.003), rectum (p = 0.019), colon (p < 0.001), and cecum (p < 0.001), there were notably less positive epithelial cells than mesenchymal cells. The expression levels of PDGFRα and Nrp2 in the mesenchymal cells were higher than the epithelial cells in cardia, cecum, colon, sigmoid, and rectum, especially in the areas with ulcers. However, Nrp2 in the epithelial cells was higher than that in the duodenum. Moreover, the positive CMV DNA in peripheral blood was related to the CMV-positive cell count, as well as the ulceration in GI tract (p = 0.035 and 0.036, respectively). Conclusions The colon has been identified as the GI site with the highest susceptibility to CMV infection. There are different CMV-infected cells in the different sites of the GI that relate to the expression level of PDGFRα and Nrp2. CMV DNA positive in the blood is related to the positive CMV cell count, as well as ulceration in the GI tract.

2022 ◽  
Bo-Wen Zheng ◽  
Bo-Yv Zheng ◽  
Hua-Qing Niu ◽  
Xiao-Bin Wang ◽  
Guo-Hua Lv ◽  

Abstract Background The clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of axial chondroblastoma (ACB) are still poorly understood. Purpose To characterize clinicopathological characteristics in a large ACB cohort and investigate their correlation with survival. We also sought to compare these results with extra-axial CB (EACB). Methods Our institution's local database was retrospectively reviewed and included a total of 132 CB patients, including 61 ACB patients and 71 EACB patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression levels of Vimentin (Vim), S100, and cytokeratin (CK) on tumor cells in 132 tissue specimens. Results Overall, ACB and EACB had similar characteristics, except for older age and tumor size, as well as higher Vim expression, incidence of surrounding tissue invasion and postoperative sensory or motor dysfunction. Whereas wide resection and absence of invasion of surrounding tissues were consistently associated with favorable survival in the ACB and EACB cohorts in univariate analysis, most parameters showed differential prognostic significance between the 2 groups. Significant prognostic factors for local recurrence-free survival in multivariate analysis included the type of resection and chicken-wire calcification in the ACB cohort. Multivariate analysis of overall survival demonstrated that the type of resection was a significant predictor in the ACB cohort, whereas the type of resection and postoperative sensory or motor dysfunction were predictive of overall survival in the EACB group. Conclusion These data suggest that there may be distinct biological behaviors between ACB and EACB and may provide useful information to better understand the prognostic characteristics of patients with ACB and to improve outcome prediction in patients with ACB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Zhiqun Bai ◽  
Xuemei Wang ◽  
Zhen Zhang

Emerging evidence has indicated that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in various biological processes associated with tumorigenesis. Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor antisense RNA1 (LIFR-AS1) is a recently identified lncRNA transcribed in an antisense manner from the LIFR gene located on human chromosome 5p13.1. LIFR-AS1 regulates tumor proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and drug resistance through different mechanisms. Its expression level is related to the clinicopathological characteristics of tumors and plays a key role in tumor occurrence and development. In this review, we summarize the role of LIFR-AS1 in the development and progression of different cancers and highlight the potential for LIFR-AS1 to serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target for a variety of human cancers.

2022 ◽  
Xiao-Ping Chen ◽  
Pei-pei Qiao ◽  
Kai-Sai Tian ◽  
Li-Tao Han ◽  
Ma Ben ◽  

Abstract Background Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated with thyroid carcinoma (TC) have rarely been reported, especially in East Asian populations. Methods We examined tumor tissue from a cohort of 241 patients diagnosed with TC between 2008 and 2020. MMR proteins were detected using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry in order to identify MMR-protein-deficient (MMR-D) and MMR-protein-intact (MMR-I) tumors. We retrospectively summarized the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with MMR-D TC, measured the expression of PD-L1, and recorded overall survival (OS) and other clinical outcomes. Results In our cohort, there were 18 (7.5%) MMR-D (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) patients, including 12 with papillary TC (PTC) (6.7%), 2 with poorly differentiated TC (PDTC) (4.7%), and 4 with anaplastic TC (ATC) (22.2%). Half of them (9/18) showed a specific deletion in MSH6, and 6 of them also carried variants in the MSH6 and PMS2 gene. Survival was significantly better in patients with MMR-D ATC than in those with MMR-I tumors (p=0.033). Four of the 18 MMR-D patients (22%) were found to be PD-L1 positive. Their OS was much shorter than that of PD-L1-negative patients. Conclusions MMR-D and PD-L1 positivity appear to be associated with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in TC. The results indicate that MMR status may have important prognostic significance in TC. Therefore, immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be a treatment option for TCs.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Anastasia N. Vaganova ◽  
Savelii R. Kuvarzin ◽  
Anastasia M. Sycheva ◽  
Raul R. Gainetdinov

Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) interact with amine compounds called “trace amines” which are present in tissues at low concentrations. Recently, TAARs expression in neoplastic tumors was reported. In this study, TAARs expression was analyzed in public RNAseq datasets in nevi and melanoma samples and compared to the expression of dopamine receptors (DRDs) that are known to be involved in melanoma pathogenesis. It was found that all DRDs and TAARs are expressed in nevi at comparable levels. Differential expression analysis demonstrated the drastic decrease of TAAR1, TAAR2, TAAR5, TAAR6, and TAAR8 expression in melanomas compared to benign nevi with only TAAR6, TAAR8, and TAAR9 remaining detectable in malignant tumors. No association of TAARs expression levels and melanoma clinicopathological characteristics was observed. TAARs co-expressed genes in melanoma and nevi were selected by correlation values for comparative pathway enrichment analysis between malignant and benign neoplasia. It was found that coexpression of TAARs with genes inquired in neurotransmitter signaling is lost in melanoma, and tumor-specific association of TAAR6 expression with the mTOR pathway and inflammatory signaling is observed. It is not excluded that TAARs may have certain functions in melanoma pathogenesis, the significance of which to tumor progression is yet to be understood.

2022 ◽  
pp. 172460082110728
Linyan Zhang ◽  
Simeng Qin ◽  
Liuyi Lu ◽  
Li Huang ◽  
Shan Li

Background This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of prealbumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (PFR) and albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) alone or in combination in Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer (Hp-NGC) patients. Methods This study included 171 healthy controls, 180 Hp-NGC patients, and 215 Helicobacter pylori-negative chronic gastritis (HpN) patients. We compared the differences of various indicators and pathological characteristics between groups with Mann–Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The diagnostic value of PFR and AFR alone or in combination for Hp-NGC patients was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results PFR and AFR were related to the progression and clinicopathological characteristics of Hp-NGC. As the disease progressed, PFR and AFR values gradually decreased and were negatively related to the tumor size and depth of invasion. In addition, the area under the curves (AUCs) that resulted from combining PFR and AFR to distinguish Hp-NGC patients from healthy controls and HpN patients were 0.908 and 0.654, respectively. When combined with PFR and AFR in the differential diagnosis of tumors with a maximum diameter ≥ 5 cm and the T3 + T4 stage, the AUCs were 0.949 and 0.922; the sensitivity was 86.32% and 80.74%; and the specificity was 94.74% and 92.98%, respectively. Conclusions PFR and AFR may be used as diagnostic biomarkers for Hp-NGC. The combination of PFR and AFR was more valuable than each indicator alone in the diagnosis of Hp-NGC.

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