Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.
Abstract Transcription factors (TF) are a wide class of genes in plants, and these can regulate the expression of other genes in response to various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic). In the current study, transcription factor activity in sugarcane was examined during cold stress. Initially, RNA transcript reads of two sugarcane cultivars (ROC22 and GT08-1108) under cold stress were downloaded from SRA NCBI database. The reads were aligned into a reference genome and the differential expression analyses were performed with the R/Bioconductor edgeR package. Based on our analyses in the ROC22 cultivar, 963 TF genes were significantly upregulated under cold stress among a total of 5649 upregulated genes, while 293 TF genes were downregulated among a total of 3,289 downregulated genes. In the GT08-1108 cultivar, 974 TF genes were identified among 5,649 upregulated genes and 283 TF genes were found among 3,289 downregulated genes. Most transcription factors were annotated with GO categories related to protein binding, transcription factor binding, DNA-sequence-specific binding, transcription factor complex, transcription factor activity in RNA polymerase II, the activity of nucleic acid binding transcription factor, transcription corepressor activity, sequence-specific regulatory region, the activity of transcription factor of RNA polymerase II, transcription factor cofactor activity, transcription factor activity from plastid promoter, transcription factor activity from RNA polymerase I promoter, polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. The findings of above results will help to identify differentially expressed transcription factors during cold stress. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulation of the transcription activity of many genes. Therefore, this study provides the molecular basis for improving cold tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grasses.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is the low yielding plant of medicinal and economic importance. Therefore, it is of interest to report the draft genome sequence of C. sativus. The draft genome of C. sativus has been assembled using Illumina sequencing and is 3.01 Gb long covering 84.24% of genome. C. sativus genome annotation identified 53,546 functional genes (including 5726 transcription factors), 862,275 repeats and 964,231 SSR markers. The genes involved in the apocarotenoids biosynthesis pathway (crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin, and safranal) were found in the draft genome analysis.
The two-domain protein RfaH, a paralog of the universally conserved NusG/Spt5 transcription factors, is regulated by autoinhibition coupled to the reversible conformational switch of its 60- residue C-terminal KOW domain between an α-hairpin and a β-barrel. In contrast, NusG/Spt5-KOW domains only occur in the β-barrel state. To understand the principles underlying the drastic fold switch in RfaH, we elucidated the thermodynamic stability and the structural dynamics of two RfaH- and four NusG/Spt5-KOW domains by combining biophysical and structural biology methods. We find that the RfaH-KOW β-barrel is thermodynamically less stable than that of most NusG/Spt5-KOWs and we show that it is in equilibrium with a globally unfolded species, which, strikingly, contains two helical regions that prime the transition towards the α-hairpin. Our results suggest that transiently structured elements in the unfolded form might drive the global folding transition in metamorphic proteins in general.
Atoh8 belongs to a large superfamily of transcriptional regulators called basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. bHLH proteins have been identified in a wide range of organisms from yeast to humans. The members of this special group of transcription factors were found to be involved not only in embryonic development but also in disease initiation and its progression. Given their importance in several fundamental processes, the translation, subcellular location and turnover of bHLH proteins is tightly regulated. Alterations in the expression of bHLH proteins have been associated with multiple diseases also in context with Atoh8 which seems to unfold its functions as both transcriptional activator and repressor. Like many other bHLH transcription factors, so far, Atoh8 has also been observed to be involved in both embryonic development and carcinogenesis where it mainly acts as tumor suppressor. This review summarizes our current understanding of Atoh8 structure, function and regulation and its complex and partially controversial involvement in development and disease.
Aggressive behavior has negative effects on animal welfare and growth performance in pigs. The dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) has a critical neuromodulator role in the dopamine signal pathway within the brain to control behavior. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1110730503, in the promoter region of the porcine DRD2 gene was identified, which affects aggressive behavior in pigs. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to identify the interactions between interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and IRF2 with the DRD2 gene. The overexpression or knockdown of these two transcription factors in porcine kidney-15 (PK15) and porcine neuronal cells (PNCs) indicate that the binding of IRF1 to DRD2 promotes the transcription of the DRD2 gene, but the binding of IRF2 to the DRD2 gene inhibits its transcription. Furthermore, IRF1 and IRF2 are functionally antagonistic to each other. The downregulation of DRD2 or upregulation of IRF2 increased the apoptosis rate of porcine neuroglial cells. Taken together, we found that transcriptional factors IRF1 and IRF2 have vital roles in regulating the transcription of the DRD2 gene, and rs1110730503 (−915A/T) is a functional SNP that influences IRF2 binding to the promoter of the DRD2 gene. These findings will provide further insight towards controlling aggressive behavior in pigs.