Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, but its application is greatly limited due to its nephrotoxicity; thus, there is still no effective medicine for the treatment of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (Cis-AKI). We previously identified that polydatin (PD) exerts nephroprotective effects by antioxidative stress in AKI models. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress-induced molecular events overlap with the process of ferroptosis and that there are common molecular targets, such as glutathione (GSH) depletion and lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, whether the nephroprotective effect of PD is related to anti-ferroptosis remains unclear. In this study, the inhibitory effect of PD on ferroptosis was observed in both cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells (20 μM) in vitro and a Cis-AKI mouse model (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in vivo, characterized by the reversion of excessive intracellular free iron accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and GSH depletion, and an increase in glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPx4) activity. Remarkably, PD dose-dependently alleviated cell death induced by the system Xc− inhibitor erastin (10 μM), and the effect of the 40 μM dose of PD was more obvious than that of ferrostatin-1 (1 μM) and deferoxamine (DFO, 100 μM), classical ferroptosis inhibitors. Our results provide insight into nephroprotection with PD in Cis-AKI by inhibiting ferroptosis via maintenance of the system Xc−-GSH-GPx4 axis and iron metabolism.
With advent of nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles, AgNPs owing majorly to their antibacterial properties, are used widely in food industry and biomedical applications implying human exposure by various routes including inhalation. Several reports have suggested AgNPs induced pathophysiological effects in a cardiovascular system. However, cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension may interfere with AgNPs-induced response, yet majority of them are understudied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the thrombotic complications in response to polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) coated AgNPs using an experimental hypertensive (HT) mouse model. Saline (control) or PEG-AgNPs (0.5 mg/kg) were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled four times, i.e., on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 post-angiotensin II-induced HT, or vehicle (saline) infusion. On day 29, various parameters were assessed including thrombosis in pial arterioles and venules, platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro, plasma markers of coagulation, and fibrinolysis and systemic oxidative stress. Pulmonary exposure to PEG-AgNPs in HT mice induced an aggravation of in vivo thrombosis in pial arterioles and venules compared to normotensive (NT) mice exposed to PEG-AgNPs or HT mice given saline. The prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation in vitro were exacerbated after exposure to PEG-AgNPs in HT mice compared with either NT mice exposed to nanoparticles or HT mice exposed to saline. Elevated concentrations of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and von Willebrand factor were seen after the exposure to PEG-AgNPs in HT mice compared with either PEG-AgNPs exposed NT mice or HT mice given with saline. Likewise, the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide were augmented by PEG-AgNPs in HT mice compared with either NT mice exposed to nanoparticles or HT mice exposed to saline. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PEG-AgNPs can potentially exacerbate the in vivo and in vitro procoagulatory and oxidative stress effect in HT mice and suggest that population with hypertension are at higher risk of the toxicity of PEG-AgNPs.
Hemorrhagic shock is associated with activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Previous studies demonstrated that central RAS activation produced by various challenges sensitizes angiotensin (Ang) II-elicited hypertension and that ERS contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension. The present study investigated whether controlled hemorrhage could sensitize Ang II-elicited hypertension and whether the brain RAS and ERS mediate this sensitization. Results showed that hemorrhaged (HEM) rats had a significantly enhanced hypertensive response to a slow-pressor infusion of Ang II when compared to sham HEM rats. Treatment with either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 1 inhibitor, captopril, or ACE2 activator, diminazene, abolished the HEM-induced sensitization of hypertension. Treatment with the ERS agonist, tunicamycin, in sham HEM rats also sensitized Ang II-elicited hypertension. However, blockade of ERS with 4-phenylbutyric acid in HEM rats did not alter HEM-elicited sensitization of hypertension. Either HEM or ERS activation produced a greater reduction in BP after ganglionic blockade, upregulated mRNA and protein expression of ACE1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and elevated plasma levels of Ang II but reduced mRNA expression of the Ang-(1-7) receptor, Mas-R, and did not alter plasma levels of Ang-(1-7). Treatment with captopril or diminazene, but not phenylbutyric acid, reversed these changes. No treatments had effects on PVN protein expression of the ERS marker glucose-regulated protein 78. The results indicate that controlled hemorrhage sensitizes Ang II-elicited hypertension by augmenting RAS prohypertensive actions and reducing RAS antihypertensive effects in the brain, which is independent of ERS mechanism.
Diabetic ulcers bring about high morbidity and mortality in patients and cause a great economic burden to society as a whole. Since existing treatments cannot fulfil patient requirements, it is urgent to find effective therapies. In this study, the wound healing effect of topical notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) treatment on diabetic full-thickness wounds in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced by the combination of a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. NR1 significantly increased the wound closure rate, enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, promoted collagen growth, increased platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) expression, and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression. RNA-Seq analysis identified ECM remodeling and inflammation as critical biological processes and Timp1 and Mmp3 as important targets in NR1-mediated wound healing. Further experiments showed that NR1-treated wounds demonstrated higher expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and lower expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) than diabetic wounds. These investigations promote the understanding of the mechanism of NR1-mediated diabetic wound healing and provide a promising therapeutic drug to enhance diabetic wound healing.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a complex invasive tumour that occurs mainly among the elderly. Therefore, we analysed the relationship between ageing-related genes (AG) and DLBCL prognosis. Datasets related to DLBCL and human AGs were downloaded and screened from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and HAGR website, respectively. LASSO and Cox regression were used to analyse AGs in the dataset and construct an AG predictive model related to DLBCL prognosis. Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment were used to analyse the function of the AG predictive model. The immune microenvironment and immune cell infiltration in DLBCL and their relationship with the AG prediction model were also analysed. After the analysis, 118 AGs were identified as genes related to DLBCL prognosis. Using the LASSO and Cox regression analyses, 9 AGs (PLAU, IL7R, MYC, S100B, IGFBP3, NR3C1, PTK2, TBP, and CLOCK) were used to construct an AG prognostic model. In the training and verification sets, this model exhibited excellent predictive ability for the prognosis of patients with DLBCL who have different clinical characteristics. Further analysis revealed that the high- and low-risk groups of the AG prognostic model were significantly correlated with immune cell infiltration and tumour microenvironment in DLBCL. Functional enrichment analysis also showed that the genes in the AG model were associated with immune-related functions and pathways. In conclusion, we constructed an AG model with a strong predictive function in DLBCL, with the ability to predict the prognosis of patients with different clinical features. This model provides new ideas and potential therapeutic targets for the study of the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the involved mechanisms of advanced glycation end product- (AGE-) exacerbated atherosclerosis (AS). Methods. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor was administrated to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) AS rats. Atherosclerotic plaque, M1 macrophage infiltration, and VSMCs phenotypes were evaluated. AGE-exposed primary macrophages were treated with specific siRNAs knocking down receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and TLR4. Phenotypes of M1 macrophage and VSMCs were identified by fluorescent stains. Contact and noncontact coculture models were established. VSMCs and macrophages were cocultured in these models. ELISA was used to detect inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Relative mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR. Relative protein expression and phosphorylation levels were evaluated by Western blots assays. Results. TLR4 inhibitor treatment significantly reduced arterial stenosis, infiltration of M1 polarized macrophages, and contractile-to-synthetic phenotype conversion of VSMCs in DM AS animals. RAGE and TLR4 silencing dramatically reduced AGE-induced macrophage M1 polarization, inflammatory cytokine secretion, and RAGE/TLR4/forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2)/signaling which inhibited delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) expression in macrophages. AGE-treated macrophages induced VSMC phenotypic conversion via activating Notch pathway in a contact coculture model rather than a noncontact model. The VSMC phenotypic conversion induction capability of macrophages was attenuated by RAGE and TLR4 silencing. Conclusions. AGEs induced activation of RAGE/TLR4/FOXC2 signaling, which featured macrophage with Dll4 high expression during M1 polarization. These macrophages promoted contractile-synthetic phenotypic conversion of VSMCs through the Dll4/Notch pathway after direct cell-to-cell contacts.
The genus Hyssopus is widespread in central Asia, East Mediterranean, and Mongolian areas. It has six main species which are used as herbal remedies, such as Hyssopus officinalis which is used as a condiment and flavoring agent in food industry. The other five species are H. ambiguus, H. cuspidatus, H. latilabiatus, H. macranthus, and H. seravschanicus. Its species are used in the treatment of various ailments such as cold, cough, loss of appetite, fungal infection, and spasmodic condition. Its constituents especially essential oils are popularly used as an additive in beverages, foods, and cosmetics. The volatile constituents are used for aroma in the food industry, cosmetic industry, and household products. The important active constituents in its essential oils are β-pinene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, and other terpenoids. Hyssopus genus is also bundled with other secondary metabolites including flavonoids luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, and their glucosides, as well as phenolic compounds including ferulic, p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid. Combinedly, the extracts of Hyssopus are reported to have potential antiviral and antifungal activities proven using in vitro studies, whereas in vivo investigations have reported the crucial role of Hyssopus extracts in plasma membrane relaxation, cytotoxic, and sedative effects. This plant is believed to be relatively safe at levels commonly used in foods; nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the safety profile.
During testicular ischemia-reperfusion, overproduction of reactive oxygen species is associated with testicular injury. We injected hydrogen peroxide (a representative of reactive oxygen species) into normal testis via the testicular artery. The experiment demonstrates that reactive oxygen species can cause spermatogenic injury. Salvianolic acid B, the most abundant bioactive component in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to possess a potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat testicular torsion-detorsion model. Rats were randomly separated into three groups, including 20 rats in each group: control group with sham operation, testicular ischemia-reperfusion group, and testicular ischemia-reperfusion + salvianolic acid B-treated group. In the testicular ischemia-reperfusion group, left testicular torsion of 720° for 2 hours was induced, and then testicular detorsion was carried out. Rats in the salvianolic acid B-treated group additionally had salvianolic acid B administered intravenously at detorsion. At 4 hours after detorsion, testes of 10 rats from each group were collected to analyze the protein expression of xanthine oxidase which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde concentration (an indirect indicator of reactive oxygen species). At 3 months after detorsion, testes of the remaining 10 rats from each group were collected to analyze spermatogenesis. Compared with the control group, xanthine oxidase protein expression and malondialdehyde concentration in ipsilateral testes of testicular ischemia-reperfusion group increased significantly, while spermatogenesis decreased significantly. In the salvianolic acid B-treated group, xanthine oxidase protein expression and malondialdehyde concentration in ipsilateral testes decreased significantly, while spermatogenesis increased significantly, compared with the testicular ischemia-reperfusion group. These results suggest that salvianolic acid B can attenuate testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury by downregulating the xanthine oxidase protein expression to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation.
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common malignancies in females, with high prevalence and mortality globally. Despite advances in diagnosis and therapeutic strategies developed in recent years, CC is still a major health burden worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of CC need to be understood. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the role of lncRNA SNHG15 in CC progression. Using qRT-PCR, we determined that lncRNA SNHG15 is highly expressed in CC tumor tissues and cells. lncRNA SNHG15 knockdown also reduces the tumorigenic properties of CC in vitro, as determined using the MTT, EdU, flow cytometry, and transwell assays. Using bioinformatics analysis, RNA pull-down, ChIP, and luciferase reporter assays, we verified the molecular mechanisms of lncRNA SNHG15 in CC progression and found that lncRNA SNHG15 expression in CC cells is transcriptionally regulated by SOX12; moreover, lncRNA SNHG15 promotes CC progression via the miR-4735-3p/HIF1a axis. This study can provide a potential target for CC diagnosis or therapeutic strategies in the future.
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disorders, are characteristic symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that may head the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Age-related structural and physiological changes in the brain lead to changes in sleep patterns. Conditions such as AD affect the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, locus coeruleus, and the hypothalamus, thus changing the sleep-wake cycle. Sleep disorders likewise adversely affect the course of the disease. Since the sleep quality is important for the proper functioning of the memory, impaired sleep is associated with problems in the related areas of the brain that play a key role in learning and memory functions. In addition to synthetic drugs, utilization of medicinal plants has become popular in the treatment of neurological diseases. Curcuminoids, which are in a diarylheptanoid structure, are the main components of turmeric. Amongst them, curcumin has multiple applications in treatment regimens of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and aging. Besides, curcumin has been reported to be effective in different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Scientific studies exclusively showed that curcumin leads significant improvements in the pathological process of AD. Yet, its low solubility hence low bioavailability is the main therapeutic limitation of curcumin. Although previous studies have focused different types of advanced nanoformulations of curcumin, new approaches are needed to solve the solubility problem. This review summarizes the available scientific data, as reported by the most recent studies describing the utilization of curcumin in the treatment of AD and sleep deprivation-related consequences.