Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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Published By Hindawi Limited

1942-0994, 1942-0900
Updated Friday, 17 September 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Ayelén D. Nigra ◽  
Anderson J. Teodoro ◽  
Germán A. Gil

Coffee consumption has been investigated as a protective factor against cancer. Coffee is a complex beverage that contains more than 1000 described phytochemicals, which are responsible for its pleasant taste, aroma, and health-promoting properties. Many of these compounds have a potential therapeutic effect due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and anticancer properties. The roasting process affects the phytochemical content, and undesirable compounds may be formed. In recent years, there have been contradictory publications regarding the effect of coffee drinking and cancer. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the association of coffee consumption with the development of cancer. In PubMed, until July 2021, the terms “Coffee and cancer” resulted in about 2150 publications, and almost 50% of them have been published in the last 10 years. In general, studies published in recent years have shown negative associations between coffee consumption and the risk or development of different types of cancer, including breast, prostate, oral, oral and pharyngeal, melanoma, skin and skin nonmelanoma, kidney, gastric, colorectal, endometrial, liver, leukemic and hepatocellular carcinoma, brain, and thyroid cancer, among others. In contrast, only a few publications demonstrated a double association between coffee consumption and bladder, pancreatic, and lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that accumulate epidemiological evidence showing a consistent inverse association between coffee consumption and cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Weizhang Jia ◽  
Qina Su ◽  
Qiong Cheng ◽  
Qiong Peng ◽  
Aimin Qiao ◽  
...  

Palmatine is a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid that has been reported to display neuroprotective effects against amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced neurotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective activities of palmatine remain poorly characterized in vivo. We employed transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models containing human Aβ1-42 to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of palmatine-mediated neuroprotection. Treatment with palmatine significantly delayed the paralytic process and reduced the elevated reactive oxygen species levels in Aβ-transgenic C. elegans. In addition, it increased oxidative stress resistance without affecting the lifespan of wild-type C. elegans. Pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed genes were related mainly to aging, detoxification, and lipid metabolism. Real-time PCR indicated that resistance-related genes such as sod-3 and shsp were significantly upregulated, while the lipid metabolism-related gene fat-5 was downregulated. Further studies demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of palmatine on Aβ toxicity were attributable to the free radical-scavenging capacity and that the upregulated expression of resistance-related genes, especially shsp, whose expression was regulated by HSF-1, played crucial roles in protecting cells from Aβ-induced toxicity. The research showed that there were significantly fewer Aβ deposits in transgenic CL2006 nematodes treated with palmatine than in control nematodes. In addition, our study found that Aβ-induced toxicity was accompanied by dysregulation of lipid metabolism, leading to excessive fat accumulation in Aβ-transgenic CL4176 nematodes. The alleviation of lipid disorder by palmatine should be attributed not only to the reduction in fat synthesis but also to the inhibition of Aβ aggregation and toxicity, which jointly maintained metabolic homeostasis. This study provides new insights into the in vivo neuroprotective effects of palmatine against Aβ aggregation and toxicity and provides valuable targets for the prevention and treatment of AD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Wen-Jun Tu ◽  
Qingjia Zeng ◽  
Kai Wang ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Bao-Liang Sun ◽  
...  

Background. Although recent studies have focused on the use of metformin in treating ischemic stroke, there is little literature to support whether it can treat intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the possible effects of prestroke metformin (MET) on ICH patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. From January 2010 to December 2019, all first-ever ICH patients with type 2 diabetes from our hospitals were included. All discharged patients would receive a one-time follow-up at 1 year after admission. Death, disability, and recurrence events were recorded. Results. We included 730 patients for analysis (the median age: 65 [IQR, 56-72] years and 57.7% was men). Of those patients, 281 (38.5%) had received MET before ICH (MET+), whereas 449 (61.5%) had not (MET−). MET (+) patients had a lower median baseline hematoma volume than did MET (-) patients (9.6 ml [IQR, 5.3-22.4 ml] vs. 14.7 ml [IQR, 7.9-28.6 ml]; P < 0.001 ). The inhospital mortality events were not significantly reduced in the MET (+) group compared with the MET (-) group (6.4% vs 8.9%, respectively; absolute difference, −2.5% [95% CI, −3.9% to −0.7%]; OR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.39 to 1.27]; P = 0.22 ). The 1-year mortality events were not significantly reduced in the MET (+) group compared with the MET (-) group (14.1% vs 17.4%, respectively; absolute difference, −3.3% [95% CI, −5.1% to −1.8%]; OR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.47 to 1.14]; P = 0.16 ). The 1-year disability events were not significantly reduced in the MET (+) group compared with the MET (-) group (28.4% vs 34.1%, respectively; absolute difference, −5.7% [95% CI, −8.2% to −3.3%]; OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.52 to 1.13]; P = 0.18 ). Finally, the recurrence rates in those two groups were not significantly different (MET [+] vs. MET [-]: 6.4% vs. 5.9%; absolute difference, 0.5% [95% CI, 0.2% to 1.3%]; OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.51 to 2.28]; P = 0.84 ). Conclusions. Pre-ICH metformin use was not associated with inhospital mortality and 1-year prognosis in diabetic ICH patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Cristina Quispe ◽  
Natália Cruz-Martins ◽  
Maria Letizia Manca ◽  
Maria Manconi ◽  
Oksana Sytar ◽  
...  

Due to its vast therapeutic potential, the plant-derived polyphenol curcumin is utilized in an ever-growing number of health-related applications. Here, we report the extraction methodologies, therapeutic properties, advantages and disadvantages linked to curcumin employment, and the new strategies addressed to improve its effectiveness by employing advanced nanocarriers. The emerging nanotechnology applications used to enhance CUR bioavailability and its targeted delivery in specific pathological conditions are collected and discussed. In particular, new aspects concerning the main strategic nanocarriers employed for treating inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases are reported and discussed, with specific emphasis on those topically employed in conditions such as wounds, arthritis, or psoriasis and others used in pathologies such as bowel (colitis), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s or dementia), cardiovascular (atherosclerosis), and lung (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) diseases. A brief overview of the relevant clinical trials is also included. We believe the review can provide the readers with an overview of the nanostrategies currently employed to improve CUR therapeutic applications in the highlighted pathological conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Yue Wang ◽  
Bo Song ◽  
Jiebiao Chen ◽  
Jinping Cao ◽  
Xian Li ◽  
...  

The aim of this study is to compare the regulatory abilities of citrus flavonoids on the oscillating expression of circadian genes. Seven varieties of citrus fruits and twenty-five citrus flavonoids were selected and evaluated. Per2 luciferase bioluminescence report system and serum shock were used to induce circadian gene expression in mouse microglia BV-2 cells. In vivo experiments were carried out using C57BL6/J mice to evaluate the regulation of flavonoids on the oscillatory expression of liver biorhythm genes. Lipopolysaccharide was used to interfere the gene oscillating expression. QRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of circadian rhythm-related genes, including Clock, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Cry2, Rev-erbα, Rev-erbβ, Rorα, Dbp, and Npas2. The results show that the polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) exerted stronger circadian gene regulatory capability, while the flavonoids containing glycosides showed no biological activity. Also, all tested flavonoids decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide release, but only polymethoxyflavones inhibited circadian rhythm disorder. PMFs inhibited Nlrp3 inflammasome-related genes and proteins, including Nlrp3, IL-1β, ASC, and Caspase1, while other flavonoids only affected IL-1β and Caspase1 expression. This mechanism was preliminarily verified using the Nlrp3 inhibitor INF39.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Dominika Kovács ◽  
Viola Bagóné Vántus ◽  
Eszter Vámos ◽  
Nikoletta Kálmán ◽  
Rudolf Schicho ◽  
...  

Crohn’s disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder of the intestines characterized by epithelial barrier dysfunction and mucosal damage. The activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is deeply involved in the pathomechanism of inflammation since it leads to energy depletion and mitochondrial failure in cells. Focusing on the epithelial barrier integrity and bioenergetics of epithelial cells, we investigated whether the clinically applied PARP inhibitor olaparib might improve experimental CD. We used the oral PARP inhibitor olaparib in the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced mouse colitis model. Inflammatory scoring, cytokine levels, colon histology, hematological analysis, and intestinal permeability were studied. Caco-2 monolayer culture was utilized as an epithelial barrier model, on which we used qPCR and light microscopy imaging, and measured impedance-based barrier integrity, FITC-dextran permeability, apoptosis, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate, and extracellular acidification rate. Olaparib reduced the inflammation score, the concentration of IL-1β and IL-6, enhanced the level of IL-10, and decreased the intestinal permeability in TNBS-colitis. Blood cell ratios, such as lymphocyte to monocyte ratio, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were improved. In H2O2-treated Caco-2 monolayer, olaparib decreased morphological changes, barrier permeability, and preserved barrier integrity. In oxidative stress, olaparib enhanced glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate), and it improved mitochondrial function (mitochondrial coupling efficiency, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity) in epithelial cells. Olaparib, a PARP inhibitor used in human cancer therapy, improved experimental CD and protected intestinal barrier integrity by preventing its energetic collapse; therefore, it could be repurposed for the therapy of Crohn’s disease.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Zhijie Zhao ◽  
Tongqi Li ◽  
Xiaohua Dong ◽  
Xiaojing Wang ◽  
Zhongxiao Zhang ◽  
...  

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by periodic neuronal demyelination, which leads to a range of symptoms and eventually to disability. The goal of this research was to use UPLC-Orbitrap/MS to identify validated biomarkers and explore the metabolic mechanisms of MS in mice. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomized into two groups that were fed either normal food or 0.2% CPZ for 11 weeks. The mouse demyelination model was assessed by LFB and the expression of MBP by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The metabolites of the corpus callosum were quantified using UPLC-Orbitrap/MS. The mouse pole climbing experiment was used to assess coordination ability. Multivariate statistical analysis was adopted for screening differential metabolites, and the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to reveal the metabolite interaction network. We successfully established the demyelination model. The CPZ group slowly lost weight and showed an increased pole climbing time during feeding compared to the CON group. A total of 81 metabolites ( VIP > 1 and P < 0.05 ) were determined to be enriched in 24 metabolic pathways; 41 metabolites were markedly increased, while 40 metabolites were markedly decreased in the CPZ group. The IPA results revealed that these 81 biomarker metabolites were associated with neuregulin signaling, PI3K-AKT signaling, mTOR signaling, and ERK/MAPK signaling. KEGG pathway analysis showed that two significantly different metabolic pathways were enriched, namely, the glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolic pathways, comprising a total of nine biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the metabolites (e.g., PE (16 : 0/22 : 6(4Z, 7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 16Z, 19Z)), PC (18 : 0/22 : 4(7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 16Z)), cytidine 5 ′ -diphosphocholine, PS (18 : 0/22 : 6(4Z, 7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 16Z, 19Z)), glycerol 3-phosphate, SM (d18 : 0/16 : 1(9Z)), Cer (d18:1/18 : 0), galabiosylceramide (d18:1/18 : 0), and GlcCer (d18:1/18 : 0)) have good discrimination ability for the CPZ group. In conclusion, the differential metabolites have great potential to serve as biomarkers of demyelinating diseases. In addition, we identified metabolic pathways associated with CPZ-induced demyelination pathogenesis, which provided a new perspective for understanding the relationship between metabolites and CNS demyelination pathogenesis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Sibhghatulla Shaikh ◽  
Khurshid Ahmad ◽  
Syed Sayeed Ahmad ◽  
Eun Ju Lee ◽  
Jeong Ho Lim ◽  
...  

Autophagy is an essential cellular process that involves the transport of cytoplasmic content in double-membraned vesicles to lysosomes for degradation. Neurons do not undergo cytokinesis, and thus, the cell division process cannot reduce levels of unnecessary proteins. The primary cause of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) is the abnormal deposition of proteins inside neuronal cells, and this could be averted by autophagic degradation. Thus, autophagy is an important consideration when considering means of developing treatments for NDs. Various pharmacological studies have reported that the active components in herbal medicines exhibit therapeutic benefits in NDs, for example, by inhibiting cholinesterase activity and modulating amyloid beta levels, and α-synuclein metabolism. A variety of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants are viewed as promising autophagy controllers and are revealed to recover the NDs by targeting the autophagic pathway. In the present review, we discuss the role of autophagy in the therapeutic management of several NDs. The molecular process responsible for autophagy and its importance in various NDs and the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in NDs by targeting autophagy are also discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Xiaotong Lou ◽  
Qianxue Mou ◽  
Bowen Zhao ◽  
Jingqiu Huang ◽  
Ke Yao ◽  
...  

Objectives. In glaucomatous eyes, the main aqueous humor (AH) outflow pathway is damaged by accumulated oxidative stress arising from the microenvironment, vascular dysregulation, and aging, which results in increased outflow resistance and ocular hypertension. Schlemm’s canal (SC) serves as the final filtration barrier of the main AH outflow pathway. The present study is aimed at investigating the possible regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the cytoskeleton by stabilizing ZO-1 in SC. Methods. Model of chronic ocular hypertension (COH) induced by episcleral venous cauterization was treated with topical VIP. The ultrastructure of junctions, ZO-1 levels, and permeability of the SC inner wall to FITC-dextran (70 kDa) were detected in the COH models. The F-actin distribution, F/G-actin ratio, and ZO-1 degradation pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HEK 293 cells were investigated. Results. ZO-1 in the outer wall of the SC was less than that in the inner wall. COH elicited junction disruption, ZO-1 reduction, and increased permeability of the SC inner wall to FITC-dextran in rats. ZO-1 plays an essential role in maintaining the F/G-actin ratio and F-actin distribution. VIP treatment attenuated the downregulation of ZO-1 associated with COH or H2O2-induced oxidative damage. In H2O2-stimulated HUVECs, the caspase-3 inhibitor prevents ZO-1 disruption. Caspase-3 activation promoted endolysosomal degradation of ZO-1. Furthermore, a decrease in caspase-3 activation and cytoskeleton redistribution was demonstrated in VIP + H2O2-treated cells. The knockdown of ZO-1 or the overexpression of caspase-3 blocked the effect of VIP on the cytoskeleton. Conclusion. This study provides insights into the role of VIP in stabilizing the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and cell junctions and may provide a promising targeted strategy for glaucoma treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Xin-Ni Lv ◽  
Zuo-Qiao Li ◽  
Lan Deng ◽  
Wen-Song Yang ◽  
Yu-Lun Li ◽  
...  

Objective. To investigate the association between early perihematomal edema (PHE) expansion and functional outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Patients with ICH who underwent initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 6 hours after the onset of symptoms and follow-up CT scans within 24 ± 12 hours were included. Absolute PHE increase was defined as the absolute increase in PHE volume from baseline to 24 hours. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the cutoff value for early PHE expansion, which was operationally defined as an absolute increase in PHE volume of >6 mL. The outcome of interest was 3-month poor outcome defined as modified Rankin scale score of ≥4. A multivariable logistic regression procedure was used to assess the association between early PHE expansion and outcome after ICH. Results. In 233 patients with ICH, 89 (38.2%) patients had poor outcome at 3-month follow-up. Early PHE expansion was observed in 56 of 233 (24.0%) patients. Patients with early PHE expansion were more likely to have poor functional outcome than those without (43.8% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001 ). After adjusting for age, admission systolic blood pressure, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, baseline ICH volume and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, and time from onset to CT, early PHE expansion was associated with poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 4.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.70–10.60; p = 0.002 ). Conclusions. The early PHE expansion was not uncommon in patients with ICH and was correlated with poor outcome following ICH.


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