neuronal apoptosis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Xin Yuan ◽  
Yingxu Yang ◽  
Danhao Xia ◽  
Lanxia Meng ◽  
Mingyang He ◽  

Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) are increasingly investigated for their potential in drug delivery systems. However, the neurotoxicity of SiO2 NPs remains to be fully clarified. Previously SiO2 NPs have been reported to be detected in the central nervous system, especially in the dopaminergic neurons which are deeply involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this article, we characterized the effects of SiO2 NPs on inducing PD-like pathology both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that SiO2 NPs promote more severe hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of α-synuclein, mitochondria impairment, oxidative stress, autophagy dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis in the α-Syn A53T transgenic mice intranasally administrated with SiO2 NPs compared with the control group. Our findings provide new evidence supporting that SiO2 NPs exposure might have a strong capability of promoting the initiation and development of PD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 269-274
Zhou Yu ◽  
Yao Yan ◽  
Ying Lou

Purpose: To investigate Curcuma longa Linn against neuronal damage induced by exposure to sevoflurane during surgical procedures. Methods: A sealed box made of transparent glass was used for anaesthetic exposure of neurons. The neurons were exposed to Curcuma longa Linn at doses of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 μM prior to viability assessment using MTT assay. The effect of Curcuma longa Linn treatment on protein expression was determined using western blotting. Results: Sevoflurane exposure led to significant and time-dependent reductions in neuronal proliferation, when compared to unexposed cells (p < 0.05). Curcuma longa Linn at doses of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 μM significantly decreased sevoflurane-mediated neuronal apoptosis. It reduced cleaved caspase-3 and Bax levels in neurons. However, the Curcuma longa Linn-mediated inhibition of sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis was significantly suppressed by VPC23019 (p < 0.05). The p- ERK1/2 level was dose-dependently up-regulated in neurons exposed to sevoflurane on treatment with Curcuma longa Linn. Moreover, VPC23019 reversed the upregulatory effect of Curcuma longa Linn on p-ERK1/2 expression in sevoflurane-exposed neurons (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Curcuma longa Linn reversed sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis by elevating p- ERK1/2 expression. Therefore, Curcuma longa Linn exerts inhibitory effect on anaesthesia-induced apoptosis in neurons, and may be useful for the treatment of this condition.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 242
Chieh-Hsin Wu ◽  
Hung-Pei Tsai ◽  
Yu-Feng Su ◽  
Cheng-Yu Tsai ◽  
Ying-Yi Lu ◽  

A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), leading to severe disability and high fatality in survivors, is a devastating disease. Neuro-inflammation, a critical mechanism of cerebral vasospasm and brain injury from SAH, is tightly related to prognoses. Interestingly, studies indicate that 2-[(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-phenol (2-PMAP) crosses the blood–brain barrier easily. Here, we investigated whether the vasodilatory and neuroprotective roles of 2-PMAP were observed in SAH rats. Rats were assigned to three groups: sham, SAH and SAH+2-PMAP. SAHs were induced by a cisterna magna injection. In the SAH+2-PMAP group, 5 mg/kg 2-PMAP was injected into the subarachnoid space before SAH induction. The administration of 2-PMAP markedly ameliorated cerebral vasospasm and decreased endothelial apoptosis 48 h after SAH. Meanwhile, 2-PMAP decreased the severity of neurological impairments and neuronal apoptosis after SAH. Furthermore, 2-PMAP decreased the activation of microglia and astrocytes, expressions of TLR-4 and p-NF-κB, inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and reactive oxygen species. This study is the first to confirm that 2-PMAP has vasodilatory and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of SAH. Taken together, the experimental results indicate that 2-PMAP treatment attenuates neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress and cerebral vasospasm, in addition to ameliorating neurological deficits, and that these attenuating and ameliorating effects are conferred through the TLR-4/NF-κB pathway.

Na Yuan ◽  
Xiuzhen Wang ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Lingsi Kong ◽  
Liyong Yuan ◽  

Background: The Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) model was constructed by resection of the left hepatic lobe in aged mice to determine the behavioral effects of the POCD model in aged mice and the relationship between NF-κB and POCD in apoptosis and autophagy. Provide a theoretical basis for POCD prevention and treatment. Methods: This study was carried out in Ningbo No. 6 Hospital, Zhejiang, China, from Jun 2019 to Dec 2020. The POCD model was constructed after resection of the left extrahepatic lobe in aged mice and randomly divided into 6 groups: sham operation group, operation group (normal saline control group, solvent group, YC-1 group, PDTC group and 3-MA group). Related indicators of behavioral changes, neuronal inflammatory responses, apoptosis, and autophagy were examined. Results: The escape latency of the aged mice in the surgical group was significantly prolonged at three time points compared with the control group, and the number of insertions decreased significantly. Microglia are activated and the inflammatory response is increased, whereas PDTC has an inhibitory effect. It was demonstrated that apoptosis and necrosis of neurons can be induced by the NF-κb pathway, and autophagy can be promoted, whereas autophagy occurs before apoptosis. Conclusion: Activation of NF-κb pathway in neurons after POCD causes neuronal apoptosis and autophagy, and cognitive impairment occurs. PDTC, a NF-κb pathway inhibitor, can effectively reduce neuronal apoptosis induced by secondary brain injury after POCD. Necrosis, to protect the brain tissue.  

2022 ◽  
Hong Shen ◽  
Hui Song ◽  
Songlin Wang ◽  
Daojing Su ◽  
Qiang Sun

Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease. The aim of our study is to explore the role and regulatory mechanism of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 in the MPP+-induced neuron pyroptosis. The levels of miR-5047 and YAF2 mRNA were determined through qRT-PCR. TUNEL staining was carried out to analyze neuronal apoptosis. Luciferase activity assay was accomplished to analyze the combination of miR-5047 and NEAT1 and YAF2 3’-UTR. Besides, the concentrations of IL-1β and IL-18 in supernatant were analyzed by ELISA assay. The levels of protein were examined through Western blot. NEAT1 and YAF2 expression were increased, while miR-5047 level was declined in the SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. NEAT1 was a positively regulator for the SH-SY5Y cells pyroptosis induced by MPP+. In addition, YAF2 was a downstream target of miR-5047. NEAT1 promoted YAF2 expression via inhibiting miR-5047. Importantly, the promotion of NEAT1 to SH-SY5Y cells pyroptosis induced by MPP+ was recused by miR-5047 mimic transfection and YAF2 downregulation. In conclusion, NEAT1 was increased in the SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+, and it promoted the MPP+-induced pyroptosis through facilitating YAF2 expression by sponging miR-5047.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Gang Gao ◽  
Yufen Duan ◽  
Feng Chang ◽  
Ting Zhang ◽  
Xinhu Huang ◽  

AbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic condition. METTL14-mediated m6A modification is associated with SCI. This study was intended to investigate the functional mechanism of RNA methyltransferase METTL14 in spinal cord neuron apoptosis during SCI. The SCI rat model was established, followed by evaluation of pathological conditions, apoptosis, and viability of spinal cord neurons. The neuronal function of primary cultured spinal motoneurons of rats was assessed after hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Expressions of EEF1A2, Akt/mTOR pathway-related proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis-related proteins were detected. EEF1A2 was weakly expressed and Akt/mTOR pathway was inhibited in SCI rat models. Hypoxia/Reoxygenation decreased the viability of spinal cord neurons, promoted LDH release and neuronal apoptosis. EEF1A2 overexpression promoted the viability of spinal cord neurons, inhibited neuronal apoptosis, and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels. Silencing METTL14 inhibited m6A modification of EEF1A2 and increased EEF1A2 expression while METTL14 overexpression showed reverse results. EEF1A2 overexpression promoted viability and inhibited apoptosis of spinal cord neurons and inflammation by activating the Akt/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, silencing METTL14 repressed apoptosis of spinal cord neurons and attenuated SCI by inhibiting m6A modification of EEF1A2 and activating the Akt/mTOR pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lester J. Rosario-Rodríguez ◽  
Yamil Gerena ◽  
Luis A. García-Requena ◽  
Luz J. Cartagena-Isern ◽  
Juan C. Cuadrado-Ruiz ◽  

AbstractHIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are prevalent despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), affecting 52% of people living with HIV. Our laboratory has demonstrated increased expression of cathepsin B (CATB) in postmortem brain tissue with HAND. Increased secretion of CATB from in vitro HIV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) induces neurotoxicity. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages and the neurotoxicity induced by viral proteins. However, it is unknown if CB2R agonists affect CATB secretion and neurotoxicity in HIV-infected MDM. We hypothesized that HIV-infected MDM exposed to CB2R agonists decrease CATB secretion and neurotoxicity. Primary MDM were inoculated with HIV-1ADA and treated with selective CB2R agonists JWH-133 and HU-308. HIV-1 p24 and CATB levels were determined from supernatants using ELISA. MDM were pre-treated with a selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 before JWH-133 treatment to determine if CB2R activation is responsible for the effects. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay. Results show that both agonists reduce HIV-1 replication and CATB secretion from MDM in a time and dose-dependent manner and that CB2R activation is responsible for these effects. Finally, JWH-133 decreased HIV/MDM-CATB induced neuronal apoptosis. Our results suggest that agonists of CB2R represent a potential therapeutic strategy against HIV/MDM-induced neurotoxicity.

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