Water Stress
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Jie-Xia Liu ◽  
Qian Jiang ◽  
Jian-Ping Tao ◽  
Kai Feng ◽  
Tong Li ◽  

AbstractWater dropwort (Liyang Baiqin, Oenanthe javanica (BI.) DC.) is an aquatic perennial plant from the Apiaceae family with abundant protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. It usually grows in wet soils and can even grow in water. Here, whole-genome sequencing of O. javanica via HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology was reported for the first time. The genome size was 1.28 Gb, including 42,270 genes, of which 93.92% could be functionally annotated. An online database of the whole-genome sequences of water dropwort, Water dropwortDB, was established to share the results and facilitate further research on O. javanica (database homepage: http://apiaceae.njau.edu.cn/waterdropwortdb). Water dropwortDB offers whole-genome and transcriptome sequences and a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Comparative analysis with other species showed that the evolutionary relationship between O. javanica and Daucus carota was the closest. Twenty-five gene families of O. javanica were found to be expanded, and some genetic factors (such as genes and miRNAs) related to phenotypic and anatomic differentiation in O. javanica under different water conditions were further investigated. Two miRNA and target gene pairs (miR408 and Oja15472, miR171 and Oja47040) were remarkably regulated by water stress. The obtained reference genome of O. javanica provides important information for future work, thus making in-depth genetic breeding and gene editing possible. The present study also provides a foundation for the understanding of the O. javanica response to water stress, including morphological, anatomical, and genetic differentiation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (5) ◽  
pp. 101-107
S. F. Usoltsev ◽  
R. V. Rybakov ◽  
G. V. Nestyak ◽  
Yu. V. Goncharenko

The process of daily variation in tomato stem diameter is examined in order to justify the use of this parameter to control drip irrigation. Changes in the size of individual plant parts depend on the provision of water, light, heat and nutrients to the production process. Therefore, such plant parameters as leaf temperature, xylem flow rate, fruit and stem diameter can be indicators of availability of necessary resources. The research was carried out in Novosibirsk region in June - September 2020. The value of the range of daily variations in stem diameter, which has a close relationship to relative soil moisture, was used as an indicator of plant water stress. The source of the information is the results of measurements of soil moisture and stem diameter growth of tomato. Experiments to assess the effect of water deficit on stem parameters were carried out on a plant set out in the open ground separately from the rest. Artificial water stress conditions were created by watering once a week. Data were collected using a PM-11z phytomonitor, soil moisture and stem diameter growth sensors. The results of measurements were processed in Microsoft Office Excel program. It was found that the range of daily fluctuations of stem diameter growth depends on moisture availability. When soil moisture is below 30%, the plant experiences water stress and the range of stem diameter fluctuations increases. The maximum growth in stem diameter was observed at 7-10 a.m. and the minimum at 13-15 p.m. local time. The difference between the maximum and minimum of the daily stem diameter increase characterizes the range of the daily stem diameter difference, which correlates closely with soil moisture. The correlation coefficient between them is 0.72. The limit for the daily stem diameter difference is 0.025 mm at 30% soil moisture. If the actual value of this parameter exceeds the limit value, the irrigation system can be activated. The implementation of this approach makes it possible to automate the irrigation process and to take into account the indicator that signals water stress of the plant.

2021 ◽  

Abstract Backgroundwater scarcity is one of the most important factors that restricts crop production specially, cotton which must planted in areas without cold temperature limitation. Most of such area in Iran encounters drought events, hot temperatures and high atmospheric evaporative demand. So, understanding of stress severity and cultivar responses will help to better management of crop in stress conditions. Our previous study showed that cultivar responses in view of some physiological and morphological aspects were highly different in water stress condition. In this study we focused on yield formatting traits.Results Three cotton commercial varieties; Khorshid, Khordad and Varamin studied in sever, mild and without water stress. In normal condition zero type cultivar, the khorshid, produced the highest seed cotton yield. Varamin cultivar had more and longer sympodial branches which could raise it’s yield. Also, Varamin cultivar’s seed cotton yield was higher than the others (3617 kg -1 ha compared with 2477 and 3060 for khordad and khorshid, respectively). Khorshid was superior to the others at sever water stress.ConclusionSeed cotton yield showed high correlation whit boll number and boll weight and vegetative aspects such as plant height, node number and sympodial branches number. Management for developing more sympodial branches results in higher bud and flower and will increase the yield. Totally, we recommend Khorshid and Varamin cultivars for normal condition and Khorshid for sever stress conditions.

2021 ◽  
Shobit Thapa ◽  
Jagriti Yadav ◽  
Dikchha SINGH ◽  
Hillol Chakdar ◽  

Abstract Drought stress adversely influences the crop plants. Herein, present research was designed to elucidate the role of plant growth promoting microbes for amelioration of water stress in wheat. A pot experiment was conducted for screening the microorganisms on the basis of plant growth, chlorophyll and proline content under water stress. Bacillus sp. BT3 and Klebsiella sp. HA9 were found more promising strains that positively influenced the plant growth, chlorophyll and proline status of seedlings under water stress condition. Further, Bacillus sp. BT-3 and Klebsiella sp. HA9 along with check strain (BioNPK) were used for elucidating their detailed effect on morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular traits to mitigate drought stress in wheat. Microbial inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, biomass, relative water content, chlorophyll content and root morphological parameters over the uninoculated water stressed (30% FC) control. Likewise, sugar content, protein content and antioxidant enzymes were also significantly enhanced due to microbial inoculation under water stress (30% FC). Microbial inoculation significantly decreased proline, glycine betaine, lipid peroxidation, peroxide and superoxide radicals in wheat over the uninoculated water stressed (30%FC) control. Quantitative real-time (qRT)- PCR analysis revealed that Bacillus sp. BT-3, Klebsiella sp. HA9 and BioNPK inoculation significantly upregulated stress responsive genes (DHN, DREB, L15 and TaABA-8OH) over the uninoculated water stressed (30% F.C.) control. The study reports the potential of Bacillus sp. BT3 and Klebsiella sp. HA9 along with BioNPK in water stress alleviation in wheat which could be recommended as effective biofertilizers.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0254906
Sidra Shafiq ◽  
Nudrat Aisha Akram ◽  
Muhammad Ashraf ◽  
Mohammad S. AL-Harbi ◽  
Bassem N. Samra

Now-a-days, plant-based extracts, as a cheap source of growth activators, are being widely used to treat plants grown under extreme climatic conditions. So, a trial was conducted to assess the response of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties, Sadaf (drought tolerant) and Sultan (drought sensitive) to foliar-applied sugar beet extract (SBE) under varying water-deficit conditions. Different SBE (control, 1%, 2%, 3% & 4%) levels were used in this study, and plants were exposed to water-deficit [(75% and 60% of field capacity (FC)] and control (100% FC) conditions. It was observed that root and shoot dry weights (growth), total soluble proteins, RWC-relative water contents, total phenolics, chlorophyll pigments and leaf area per plant decreased under different water stress regimes. While, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), RMP-relative membrane permeability, H2O2-hydrogen peroxide and the activities of antioxidant enzymes [CAT-catalase, POD-peroxidase and SOD-superoxide dismutase] were found to be improved in water stress affected maize plants. Exogenous application of varying levels of SBE ameliorated the negative effects of water-deficit stress by enhancing the growth attributes, photosynthetic pigments, RWC, proline, glycinebetaine (GB), activities of POD and CAT enzymes and levels of total phenolics, whereas it reduced the lipid peroxidation in both maize varieties under varying water stress levels. It was noted that 3% and 4% levels of SBE were more effective than the other levels used in enhancing the growth as well as other characteristics of the maize varieties. Overall, the sugar beet extract proved to be beneficial for improving growth and metabolism of maize plants exposed to water stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107333
Shoujia Ren ◽  
Bin Guo ◽  
Zhijun Wang ◽  
Juan Wang ◽  
Quanxiao Fang ◽  

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 7924
Md Parvez Islam ◽  
Takayoshi Yamane

The biggest challenge in the classification of plant water stress conditions is the similar appearance of different stress conditions. We introduce HortNet417v1 with 417 layers for rapid recognition, classification, and visualization of plant stress conditions, such as no stress, low stress, middle stress, high stress, and very high stress, in real time with higher accuracy and a lower computing condition. We evaluated the classification performance by training more than 50,632 augmented images and found that HortNet417v1 has 90.77% training, 90.52% cross validation, and 93.00% test accuracy without any overfitting issue, while other networks like Xception, ShuffleNet, and MobileNetv2 have an overfitting issue, although they achieved 100% training accuracy. This research will motivate and encourage the further use of deep learning techniques to automatically detect and classify plant stress conditions and provide farmers with the necessary information to manage irrigation practices in a timely manner.

Resources ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 120
Simon Meißner

The consumption of freshwater in mining accounts for only a small proportion of the total water use at global and even national scales. However, at regional and local scales, mining may result in significant impacts on freshwater resources, particularly when water consumption surpasses the carrying capacities defined by the amount of available water and also considering environmental water requirements. By applying a geographic information system (GIS), a comprehensive water footprint accounting and water scarcity assessment of bauxite, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, uranium and zinc as well as gold, palladium, platinum and silver was conducted to quantify the influence of mining and refining of metal production on regional water availability and water stress. The observation includes the water consumption and impacts on water stress of almost 2800 mining operations at different production stages, e.g., preprocessed ore, concentrate and refined metal. Based on a brief study of mining activities in 147 major river basins, it can be indicated that mining’s contribution to regional water stress varies significantly in each basin. While in most regions mining predominantly results in very low water stress, not surpassing 0.1% of the basins’ available water, there are also exceptional cases where the natural water availability is completely exceeded by the freshwater consumption of the mining sector during the entire year. Thus, this GIS-based approach provides precise information to deepen the understanding of the global mining industry’s influence on regional carrying capacities and water stress.

2021 ◽  
Sunghwan Jung ◽  
Jisoo Yuk ◽  
Matthieu Fuchs

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