Soil Water
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2021 ◽  
Vol 311 ◽  
pp. 108670
Author(s):  
Pietro Della Sala ◽  
Christian Cilas ◽  
Teresa E. Gimeno ◽  
Steven Wohl ◽  
Stephen Yaw Opoku ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Kiet Hong Vo Tuan Truong ◽  
Nguyen Thi Pham ◽  
Thoa Thi Kim Nguyen

The study aims to identify risks of agrochemicals that impact farmworkers, consumers, and ecology in Vietnamese mango cultivation to enhance safety and friendly production. The study finds out the total numbers of root fertilizers (N-P-K) of the noncooperative and cooperative farmers are similar, approximately 1,400 kg/ha/year higher than those in other countries. Excessive fertilizer usage is a potential threat to soil, water, and air pollution. In addition, the findings indicate that the ecology component is undergoing the most negative impact from excessive agrochemical use in mango farming. The vast majority of agrochemicals in mango cultivation are fungicide and paclobutrazol over 90% of the total number of agrochemicals used in both noncooperative and cooperative farmer groups among the three seasons. Total field EIQ of the cooperative grower category is less than that of the noncooperative grower category. These results show that mango cultivation should consider rejecting the banned active ingredients of glyphosate, paraquat, and carbendazim as well as reducing fungicide and paclobutrazol usage and encouraging cooperative participation to safeguard the environment and human health. Moreover, science information needs to be closely linked and fed back to policy development to boost the management of the awareness of the ecological risks for farmers associated with reducing agrochemical use in mango cultivation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael J. Poulos ◽  
Toni J. Smith ◽  
Shawn G. Benner ◽  
Jennifer L. Pierce ◽  
Alejandro N. Flores ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 195 ◽  
pp. 103302
Author(s):  
Cristiam Bosi ◽  
Neil Ian Huth ◽  
Paulo Cesar Sentelhas ◽  
José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1035
Author(s):  
Mihkel Are ◽  
Tanel Kaart ◽  
Are Selge ◽  
Endla Reintam

The stability of the soil aggregates is an important soil quality indicator, as it affects the soil’s overall functionality. As the soil aggregates are highly affected by agricultural practices, it is essential to know how crops interact with the aggregation process. Therefore, for obtaining more knowledge, this research was conducted in Estonia in an organic crop rotation field experiment from 2012/2013 through 2015/2016 to study the effects of crops (potato → spring barley undersown with red clover → red clover → winter wheat → pea) under different treatments (TC—control; TW—winter cover crops; TW+M—TW with farmyard manure 40 Mg ha−1 per crop rotation). The results showed that in the topsoil (5–10 cm), the soil water-stable aggregate (WSA) content (determined by the wet sieving method) from highest to lowest was following: pea (61.7%), winter wheat (61.6%), spring barley (61.5%), red clover (59.3%), potato (57.1%); whereas in the subsoil (30–35 cm): potato (50.6%), pea (48.5%), red clover (47.9%), spring barley (47.7%), winter wheat (46.4%). Therefore, potato was a noticeable crop, as among the crops, it had the lowest WSA content in the topsoil, while highest in the subsoil. The results shown gave an assumption that the after-effects of some crops (foremost with pea) were noticeable in the soil properties during the following crop. In the topsoil, the differences between crops were significant among crops just for TW and TW+M treatments. In TW, potato was lower than spring barley and winter wheat, but not significantly lower than pea or red clover. In the subsoil, significant differences between crops were observed for TC and TW treatments: in TC, potato was just significantly greater than red clover (but similar to other crops), and in TW, significantly greater than winter wheat. Furthermore, in the topsoil the soil organic carbon (SOC) content was not significantly affected by crops, and the use of winter cover crops generally increased the SOC content while concurrently decreased the WSA content and the soil maximum water holding capacity. This was probably caused by the additional tillage operations which cancelled out the possible benefits for the soil aggregates. As a consequence of the constantly declining SOC content, caused by the weakened soil aggregates, the plant-available P and K contents, especially in the absence of manure applications, decreased as well, probably due to the combination of fixation and removal of plant biomass. Therefore, it is expected that by continuing this trend, the plant growing conditions decline, which in turn will have a negative effect for the aggregate formation and carbon sequestration, which are essential for plant growth.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessica Landgraf ◽  
Dörthe Tetzlaff ◽  
Maren Dubbert ◽  
David Dubbert ◽  
Aaron Smith ◽  
...  

Abstract. Root water uptake is an important critical zone process, as plants can tap various water sources and transpire these back into the atmosphere. However, knowledge about the spatial and temporal dynamics of root water uptake and associated water sources at both high temporal resolution (e.g. daily) and over longer time periods (e.g. seasonal) is still limited. We used cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for continuous in situ monitoring of stable water isotopes in soil and xylem water for two riparian willow (Salix alba) trees over the growing season (May to October) of 2020. This was complemented by isotopic sampling of local precipitation, groundwater and stream water in order to help constrain the potential sources of root water uptake. A local flux tower, together with sap flow monitoring, soil moisture measurements and dendrometry were also used to provide the hydroclimatic and ecohydrological contexts for in situ isotope monitoring. In addition, bulk samples of soil water and xylem water were collected to corroborate the continuous in situ data. The monitoring period was characterised by frequent inputs of precipitation, interspersed by warm dry periods which resulted in variable moisture storage in the upper 20 cm of the soil profile and dynamic isotope signatures. This variability was greatly damped in 40 cm and the isotopic composition of the sub-soil and groundwater was relatively stable. The isotopic composition and dynamics of xylem water was very similar to that of the upper soil and analysis using a Bayesian mixing model inferred that overall ~90 % of root water uptake was derived from the upper soil profile. Sap flow and dendrometry data indicated that soil water availability did not seriously limit transpiration during the study period, though there was a suggestion that deeper (> 40 cm) soil water might provide a higher proportion of root water uptake (~30 %) in a drier period in the late summer. The study demonstrates the utility of prolonged real time monitoring of natural stable isotope abundance in soil-vegetation systems, which has great potential for further understanding of ecohydrological partitioning under changing hydroclimatic conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Weizhou Xu ◽  
Xiping Deng ◽  
Bingcheng Xu ◽  
Jairo A. Palta ◽  
Yinglong Chen

The grasslands on the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China are expected to be particularly responsive to the size and frequency changes of extreme precipitation events because their ecological processes are largely driven by distinct soil moisture pulses. However, the plant growth and competitiveness of co-dominant species in response to the changes in the amount and timing of soil water are still unclear. Thus, two co-dominant species, Bothriochloa ischaemum and Lespedeza davurica, were grown in seven mixture ratios under three watering regimes [80 ± 5% pot soil capacity (FC) (high watering), 60 ± 5% FC (moderate watering), and 40 ± 5% FC (low watering)] in a pot experiment. The soil water contents were rapidly improved from low to moderate water and from moderate to high water, respectively, at the heading, flowering, and maturity stages of B. ischaemum, and were maintained until the end of the growing season of each species. The biomass production of both species increased significantly with the increased soil water contents, particularly at the heading and flowering periods, with a more pronounced increase in B. ischaemum in the mixtures. The root/shoot ratio of both species was decreased when the soil water availability increased at the heading or flowering periods. The total biomass production, water use efficiency (WUE), and relative yield total (RYT) increased gradually with the increase of B. ischaemum in the mixtures. The relative competition intensity was below zero in B. ischaemum, and above zero in L. davurica. The competitive balance index calculated for B. ischaemum was increased with the increase of the soil water contents. Bothriochloa ischaemum responded more positively to the periodical increase in soil water availability than L. davurica, indicating that the abundance of B. ischaemum could increase in relatively wet seasons or plenty-rainfall periods. In addition, the mixture ratio of 10:2 (B. ischaemum to L. davurica) was the most compatible combination for the improved biomass production, WUE, and RYTs across all soil water treatments.


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