molecular analyses
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Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 531 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-17

A new endemic slipper orchid in the family Orchidaceae from Northern Thailand was described according to morphological and molecular analyses. Morphological information specifies the new slipper orchid Paphiopedilum charlesworthii var. lannaense to be similar to Paphiopedilum charlesworthii (Rolfe) Pfitzer 1895, with the exception of its staminode being obovate-obcordate with yellow color, glittery and rough surface. Molecular analysis by AFLP technique indicates that Paphiopedilum charlesworthii var. lannaense can be included as a member of section Paphiopedilum and is closely related to Paphiopedilum coccineum Perner, H. & Herrmann, R. (2000) (syn. Paphiopedilum barbigerum var. coccineum), from which it differs morphologically by dorsal sepal and petal characters. The morphological and molecular evidence supported that Paphiopedilum charlesworthii var. lannaense is a new slipper orchid in the genus Paphiopedilum (Cypripedioideae, Orchidaceae).

IJID Regions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Nadine N'Dilimabaka ◽  
Danielle Koumba Mavoungou ◽  
Vladimir Soami ◽  
Linda Bohou Kombila ◽  
Rose Marlène Mouguiama ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Maria Gerakari ◽  
Nikolina Cheimona ◽  
Eleni Tani ◽  
Ilias Travlos ◽  
Demosthenis Chachalis ◽  

Lolium spp. are troublesome weeds mainly found in winter cereal crops worldwide, including Europe. In recent years resistant mechanisms have been evolved to several important herbicides. In this study we investigated the mechanisms responsible for conferring glyphosate resistance in some Lolium spp. populations. A holistic approach was used, based on dose-response experiments, determination of shikimic acid concentration in plant leaf tissue, as well as molecular analyses. More specifically, in three Lolium spp. populations the existence of a mutation in the Pro-106 codon of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene was investigated as well as the relative transcript levels of four ABC-transporter genes were monitored at three time points after glyphosate application. The results demonstrated that glyphosate resistance is a multifactor phenomenon. Relative transcript levels of the ABC-transporter genes were abundant at very early time points after glyphosate treatments. Dose-response experiments and shikimate analyses were in accordance with the findings of the quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses. We suggest that relative expression ratio of ABC-transporter genes can be a useful tool to rapidly identify Lolium spp. populations resistant to glyphosate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 613-633
Wen-hui Mo ◽  
Hua-yan Chen ◽  
Hong Pang ◽  
Jing-xian Liu

Species of the genus Oxyscelio Kieffer are egg parasitoids of Orthoptera. The genus is relatively diverse in China, with 34 described species. Some species of the genus are extremely morphologically similar and difficult to identify, especially in males. In this study, DNA barcoding based on sequences of the COI gene was used to discriminate Oxyscelio species from southern China. In total, 49 COI sequences belonging to 22 morphospecies were obtained. The COI sequences worked well for the identification of all the studied species, with intraspecific genetic distances ranging between 0 and 4.3%, while interspecific distances ranged between 7.1% and 19%. Based on both morphological and molecular analyses, five species are described as new: O. amalocarina Mo & Chen, sp. nov., O. apheles Mo & Chen, sp. nov., O. latheticus Mo & Chen, sp. nov., O. stenos Mo & Chen, sp. nov., and O. striae Mo & Chen, sp. nov.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 528 (4) ◽  
pp. 247-254

A new orchid species, Bulbophyllum versicolor (Malaxideae, Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), from Malipo, Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated here. Detailed morphological study indicates that B. versicolor is similar to B. japonicum, but it differs in the shape and size of leaf and flower and flower colour. Molecular analyses based on the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrITS) and plastid DNA (matK, atpI-atpH and trnL-F) reveal that B. versicolor is a new species and genetically similar to B. japonicum.

2021 ◽  
Amelia Paredes-Trujillo ◽  
Victor Manuel Vidal-Martínez ◽  
David Hernández ◽  
David Gonzalez-Solis ◽  
Rodolfo del Río-Rodríguez

Abstract We detected N. girellae infections in 40 species belonging to 12 families of imported marine ornamental fish from a public aquarium in the Mexican state of Yucatan in January 2018 to December 2020 and carried out their identification to the species level using morphological and molecular analyses. Monogeneans were corroborated morphologically and molecularly using a partial sequence of 28S (region D1–D3) ribosomal DNA and analyzed in a molecular phylogenetic context in combination with data derived from other species of N. girellae available in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the specimen found consistently belonged to the N. girellae clade. High infection parameters were detected of N. girellae in the hosts. This identification is relevant to aquarists and aquaculturists in the Gulf of Mexico because N. girellae is considered highly pathogenic in confined fish. Clearly, this work demonstrates that the importation of ornamental fish, coupled with deficient sanitary measures (lack of quarantine areas in distribution centres) contributes to the introduction of parasites and their establishment and dispersal within Mexico.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Rohit Chatterjee ◽  
Joshua Huot ◽  
Fabrizio Pin ◽  
Andrea Bonetto

Background and Hypothesis: We and others have shown that chemotherapy promotes skeletal muscle wasting and weakness (i.e., cachexia) by disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis and causing oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) is a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and is involved in reducing oxidative damage in skeletal muscle. Hence, in the present study we investigated whether overexpression of skeletal muscle PGC1α (mPGC1α) was sufficient to preserve skeletal muscle mass and function in young and old mice treated with cisplatin. Experimental Design or Project Methods: Young (2-month; n = 5) and old (18-month; n = 5-8) male wild type (WT) or mPGC1α transgenic mice were treated with cisplatin (2.5mg/kg), while age-matched WT mice received vehicle for 2 weeks. Animals were assessed for muscle force and motor unit number estimation (MUNE). Skeletal muscles were weighed and processed for molecular analyses, including assessment of mitochondrial protein content. Results: Young WT mice exposed to cisplatin showed evidence of cachexia, as indicated by reduced gastrocnemius size (-16%), plantarflexion force (-8%) and MUNE (-56%), whereas mPGC1α mice were only partially protected. Interestingly, despite exacerbated cachexia in aged WT mice treated with chemotherapy, as demonstrated by markedly decreased gastrocnemius size (-22%), plantarflexion force (-18%) and MUNE (-80%) compared to untreated WT, muscle mass, strength and innervation were fully preserved in age-matched mPGC1α mice. Follow-up molecular analyses revealed that WT animals exposed to chemotherapy present loss of muscle mitochondrial proteins PGC1α, OPA1 and CytochromeC, whereas their levels in mPGC1α mice were robustly increased. Conclusion and Potential Impact: Altogether, our data suggest that PGC1α plays a pivotal role in preserving skeletal muscle mass and function, usually impaired by anticancer treatments. These findings enforce developing mitochondria-targeting therapeutics to combat the negative consequences that chemotherapy has on skeletal muscle.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12500
Danisile Tembe ◽  
Mokgadi Pulane Malatji ◽  
Samson Mukaratirwa

The current study aimed at molecular identification and comparing the diversity of arthropods communities between pig and sheep carcasses during the cold and warm season in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Adult arthropods found on and around the carcasses were collected using either fly traps or forceps. Molecular analyses confirmed the identification of twelve arthropod species collected from both sheep and pig carcasses during the cold season. Results showed that 11 of 12 arthropod species were common in both sheep and pig carcasses, with exception to Onthophagus vacca (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) (Linnaeus, 1767) and Atherigona soccata (Diptera: Muscidae) (Rondani, 1871) species which were unique to sheep and pig carcasses respectively. However, during the warm season, the sheep carcass attracted more arthropod (n = 13) species as compared to the pig carcass. The difference in the obtained arthropod was due to the presence of O. vacca which was also unique to the sheep carcass during this season. Furthermore, there was an addition of a beetle species Hycleus lunatus (Coleoptera: Meloidae) (Pallas, 1782), which was collected from both sheep and pig carcasses but unique to the warm season. The pig carcass attracted more dipteran flies during both warm (n = 1,519) and cold season (n = 779) as compared to sheep carcass during the warm (n = 511) and cold season (n = 229). In contrast, coleopterans were more abundant on the sheep carcass during the warm season (n = 391) and cold season (n = 135) as compared to the pig carcass in both warm season (n = 261) and cold season (n = 114). In overall, more flies and beetles were collected on both sheep and pig carcasses during the warm season, and this further highlight that temperature influenced the observed difference in the abundance of collected arthropod between seasons.

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