Euconnus (Tetramelus) melkei sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in the Eastern Cape province of the Republic of South Africa. This species is characterized by the most elaborate and extensive male sexual dimorphic features known in Euconnus, comprising glandular projections and impressions that cover most of the head dorsum, strongly modified scapes, long projections on protrochanters, and thickened profemora with glandular porous and setal patches. The most similar species, Euconnus nasicornis Franz and E. paranasicornis Franz, previously treated as incertae sedis within Euconnus, are placed in Tetramelus. The E. nasicornis species group of Tetramelus that includes the abovementioned species is defined by an extremely elongate adult body, multiple dimorphic features in males, and a pair of lateral longitudinal sulci on the pronotum. The current state of knowledge of South African Euconnus is discussed, and a checklist of the currently known 159 nominal species that inhabit RSA is given.
The samples for this study were collected from terrestrial mosses and lichens growing on palm tree trunks and concrete walls in the city of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. During the investigation on diatom diversity, a new species from the genus Luticola was found. The new species occurred individually at all sampling sites. The aim of this paper is to provide a morphological and ecological description of Luticola minutissima sp. nov. from an aerophytic environment. The species is characterized by a small valve size (5.2–16.8 μm length and 3.7–4.4 wide) and abruptly hooked proximal raphe endings (ca. 90-degree angle). Additionally for comparison, type material of the most similar species, Luticola neglecta Zidarova, Levkov & Van de Vijver, was studied and new information for the ultrastructure of the latter species is provided as well.
The paper presents a taxonomic review of Bulbophyllum section Rhytionanthos for the flora of Vietnam and provides the key for its species’ identification. A new species, B. truongtamii and a new variety, B. taeniophyllum var. denticulatoalatum are described for science. Bulbophyllum nodosum is reported for the first time from the country. Bulbophyllum strigosum, described 20 years ago based on cultivated plant of uncertain origin was rediscovered in NE Vietnam. For this species, location and detailed description are reported. Analytical photos, data on phenology, ecology, and distribution are presented for all studied species. The morphological comparison table of the new species, new variety and newly recorded species segregating them from similar species are presented.
The Hypoxylon species play an important ecological role in tropical rainforest as wood-decomposers, and some might have benefical effects on their hosts as endophytes. The present work concerns a survey of the genus Hypoxylon from Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park of China. Four new species: H. wuzhishanense, H. hainanense, H.chrysalidosporum, and H.cyclobalanopsidis, were discovered based on a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular data. Hypoxylon wuzhishanense is characterized by Rust pulvinate stromata, amyloid apical apparatus and brown ascospores, with most of the perispore being indehiscent in 10% KOH. Hypoxylon hainanense has effused–pulvinate and Violet stromata, amyloid apical apparatus, light-brown to brown ascospores with straight germ slit and dehiscent perispore. Hypoxylonchrysalidosporum is distinguished by glomerate to pulvinate stromata, highly reduced or absent inamyloid apical apparatus, and light-brown to brown ascospores with very conspicuous coil-like ornamentation. Hypoxyloncyclobalanopsidis has Livid Purple pulvinate stromata, highly reduced amyloid apical apparatus, faint bluing, brown ascospores and dehiscent perispore, and it grows on dead branches of Cyclobalanopsis. Detailed descriptions, illustrations, and contrasts with morphologically similar species are provided. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from ITS, RPB2, LSU, and β-tubulin sequences confirmed that the four new species are distinct within the genus Hypoxylon.
A new species from the state of Goiás, Brazil, Phyllanthus pterocaulis, is described and illustrated, with comments on its geographic distribution and environmental preferences, phenology, morphological relationships, and systematic position. It is morphologically allied with Phyllanthus avicularis, P. heliotropus, and P. hyssopifolioides, but differs from all of them by a set of characters related to cymules sex, presence and types of trichomes on leaves and stems, leaf consistency, numbers of sepals in flower of both sexes, integrity of stamens, capsules and seeds. Additionally, we provide images of the new species in the field, conservation status, mapped distribution, the anatomical description of its stem and leaves, and a key to differentiate it from the other similar species belonging to Phyllanthus sect. Loxopodium occurring in Brazil. The new species is one of the few in the genus that occurs in shaded environments in seasonal dry forests within the Cerrado biome.
A new Epidendrum species of the Nocturnum group is proposed for the Brazilian central Amazon, near Manaus. It is described, illustrated, and compared with similar species. Epidendrum dayseae can be recognized by the pendent stem, the long, narrow leaves, a relatively long floral pedicel, and the lateral lobes of the lip smaller than the mid-lobe and deeply separated. The new species resembles E. longicolle, but is distinguished by the union between of the lateral and mid-lobes of the lip being under half the mid-lobe length. The new species is also compared with E. plurifolionocturnum. Its chromosome number is 2n = 4x = 80, with a band pattern similar to other species of the Nocturnum group.
Additional material collected in September 2019 made it possible to clarify the range of conchological variability of Harmozica zangezurica recently described from the Syunik region of Armenia, which largely overlaps with that of Harmozica pisiformis thus rendering impossible the reliable identification of empty shells. At the same time the stability has been proven of a diagnostic feature of H. zangezurica - very long vaginal appendages whose length is approximately equal to the total length of the penis and epiphallus. This character allows reliable distinguishing of H. zangezurica not only from the conchologically similar species H. pisiformis , but also from other representatives of the genus Harmozica . Some data on the ecology and life cycle of H. zangezurica were obtained.
A new species of the family Coryphellidae, Coryphella alexanderi sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected in the Kuril Islands, NorthWest Pacific, from the upper sublittoral to 200 m depth. An integrative analysis was conducted, including a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four markers (COI, 16S, H3, 28S), an automatic species delimitation method ABGD, and an analysis of the external and internal morphology using light and scanning electron microcopy. The distinctiveness of Coryphella alexanderi sp. nov. is well established both morphologically and genetically, and it differs from externally similar species in radular characters. Phylogenetically Coryphella alexanderi sp. nov. is closely related to Coryphella trophina, which occurs sympatrically in the same geographic and bathymetric ranges. Coryphella alexanderi sp. nov. appears to be restricted to the middle and northern Kuril Islands, which is consistent with the high numbers of endemic taxa in this area.
This chapter discusses two species models, which are diametrically opposed. The first, often called the 'biological species concept', defines species in terms of 'reproductive isolation', convinced that species arise when subsets of a population are split off and remain geographically isolated over evolutionary time. If and when such new species are reunited with their founder population, interbreeding does not occur, or if it does, infertile progeny result. Hence, from the biological species concept, natural selection is a primary agent of change and directly selects for new species. In this sense, species are the direct products of natural selection and they are therefore 'adaptive devices'. When applying this species concept, it has been impossible to separate some sibling species of fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera where distinct morphological species can be similar in molecular analyses of certain DNA sequences, while similar species morphologically are distinct in the same molecular characters. A radically different model, the 'recognition concept of species', relies heavily on a knowledge of species ecology and behaviour, particularly in their natural habitat. The principal points in this concept are given. In contrast to the now-outdated biological species concept that leads one to depend on laboratory-based research to define species, the recognition concept requires workers to undertake extensive field research in the habitat of the taxon under investigation. In translating this approach to research in the insect family Tephritidae, particularly the Dacinae, some 35 years of field surveys have been undertaken throughout the Indian subcontinent, South-east Asia and the South Pacific region. These surveys included trapping using male lure traps and host fruit collections of commercial/edible fruits. The results of this work have included the provision of specimens of almost all known species for morphological descriptions (c.800 species), material for male pheromone chemistry, and data on host fruit relationships and biogeographical studies.
AbstractSubri River Forest Reserve (SR) is the most extensive forest area in Ghana with an accompanying rich floral species. Over the years, logging from both legally prescribed and illegal operations remain the predominant forest disturbance in SR. Gap creation following logging is crucial in determining tree species composition and diversity. Hence, the study evaluated the composition and diversity of naturally regenerated tree species in logging gaps of different sizes and, again examined the roles of these tree species in fulfilling the economic and ecological agenda of sustainable forest management after logging in SR. Twelve gaps were randomly selected: 4 each were grouped into small size (≤ 200 m2), medium size (201–300 m2), and large size (≥ 300 m2). Data were gathered from 1 m2 circular area at gap centres and repeatedly inside 1 m width strip along 20 m individual N-S-E-W transects. Species diversity differed significantly between gap sizes. Higher diversity indices were measured in large size gaps. Gap sizes shared similar species. There were significant differences among various height groupings of tree species across all three gap sizes. Pioneers preferred medium to large size gaps, while shade-tolerant tree species preferred small size gaps for their abundance. Vulnerable and Lower Risk Near Threatened tree species under Conservation Status and, Premium and Commercial tree species under Utilisation Status preferred small size gaps for their proliferation and conservation. Therefore, we recommend the single tree-based selective logging for ensuring creations of small to medium size (200–300 m2) gaps through adjustments to the logging permit process, revision of Allocation Quota Permit, strict adherence to the 40-year polycyclic selection system, along with more dedicated enforcement and monitoring. Changes along these protocols would tremendously facilitate natural regeneration of different suites of timber species resulting in the improvement of the overall biodiversity conservation associated with the forest, more sustainable forest harvests and more income to those who receive permits.