Southern China
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Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5072 (5) ◽  
pp. 401-438

The diversity of Asian horned toads is considered highly underestimated and to contain a large number of undescribed cryptic species. In this work, we describe three new species of Boulenophrys from south China, namely, Boulenophrys yaoshanensis sp. nov. from central Guangxi, Boulenophrys yingdeensis sp. nov. from northern Guangdong, and Boulenophrys yunkaiensis sp. nov. from western Guangdong. These three new species can be distinguished from all recognized congeners by a combination of morphological characteristics and significant genetic divergences. These descriptions increase the number of recognized species of Boulenophrys to 61. In addition, an updated checklist of the Asian horned toads of the subfamily Megophryinae is provided in this study.  

2021 ◽  
pp. 127970
Jiaqing Zeng ◽  
Xinghua Luo ◽  
Yizhi Cheng ◽  
Wenshun Ke ◽  
William Hartley ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qi Gao ◽  
Chen Shao ◽  
Qiuyue Tang ◽  
Jingbao Li

The morphology and morphogenesis of Pseudosincirra longicirrata nov. gen. and nov. comb., isolated from southern China, were investigated with living observation and protargol staining. Our population is similar to the original population in living characteristics and ciliary patterns. The main determinable morphogenetic features of P. longicirrata nov. comb. are the presence of five frontoventral-transverse cirral anlagen (FVT-anlagen) and a dorsomarginal kinety anlage. According to the origin of FVT-anlagen IV and V in proter, it can be determined that P. longicirrata nov. comb. possesses two frontoventral rows and one right marginal row. Hence, a new genus, Pseudosincirra nov. gen., is proposed, and the diagnosis of P. longicirrata nov. comb. is improved. The new genus is diagnosed as follows: adoral zone of membranelles and undulating membranes is in a Gonostomum pattern; there are three enlarged frontal cirri, one buccal cirrus, and one parabuccal cirrus; postperistomial cirrus and transverse cirri are lacking; there are two more or less long frontoventral rows and one right and two or more left marginal rows; cirri within all rows very widely spaced; dorsal kinety pattern is of Urosomoida type, that is, three dorsal kineties and one dorsomarginal kinety; and caudal cirri are present. Phylogenetic analyses based on the small subunit ribosomal (SSU rDNA) sequence data indicate that P. longicirrata nov. comb. clusters with Deviata and Perisincirra. It is considered that Pseudosincirra nov. gen. and Perisincirra paucicirrata should be assigned to the family Deviatidae; fine cirri, and cirri within all rows being relatively widely spaced, should be considered as plesiomorphies of Deviatidae; and Deviatidae is closely related to Dorsomarginalia or Strongylidium–Hemiamphisiella–Pseudouroleptus.

Xiao-qian Yang ◽  
Man-yao Feng ◽  
Ze-fen Yu

Exophiala is an important genus, with several species associated with infections in humans and animals. In a survey of soil fungal diversity in Yunnan province, PR China, a novel taxon, Exophiala pseudooligosperma sp. nov., was identified based on combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic features. Morphologically, this species is characterized by having torulose, septate hyphae and swollen, terminal or intercalary conidiogenous cells arising at acute angles from aerial hyphae. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, the small and large nuclear subunit of the rRNA gene and part of the β-tubulin gene confirmed the phylogenetic position of the new species within the genus Exophiala.

MycoKeys ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 85 ◽  
pp. 1-30
Min Qiao ◽  
Hua Zheng ◽  
Ji-Shu Guo ◽  
Rafael F. Castañeda-Ruiz ◽  
Jian-Ping Xu ◽  

The family Microthyriaceae is represented by relatively few mycelial cultures and DNA sequences; as a result, the taxonomy and classification of this group of organisms remain poorly understood. During the investigation of the diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes from southern China, several isolates were collected. These isolates were cultured and sequenced and a BLAST search of its LSU sequences against data in GenBank revealed that the closest related taxa are in the genus Microthyrium. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the combined sequence data from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU), revealed that these isolates represent eight new taxa in Microthyriaceae, including two new genera, Antidactylariagen. nov. and Isthmomycesgen. nov. and six new species, Antidactylaria minifimbriatasp. nov., Isthmomyces oxysporussp. nov., I. dissimilissp. nov., I. macrosporussp. nov., Triscelophorus anisopterioideussp. nov. and T. sinensissp. nov. These new taxa are described, illustrated for their morphologies and compared with similar taxa. In addition, two new combinations are proposed in this family.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Pui Yiu Szeto ◽  
Chingduang Yurayong

Abstract It is well-known that Tai-Kadai languages have affected the typological profiles of Southern Sinitic varieties. For example, compared with their northern sisters, Southern Sinitic varieties display a stronger tendency towards head-initial structures, as in the N–N compounds for expressing the sex of animals and in post-verbal temporal adverbs. Given that the Tai-Kadai languages in China have been in contact with Sinitic for over two millennia, it is quite natural to find signs of Sinitic influence therein. Most remarkably, pre-verbal adjunct phrases and pre-nominal relative clauses, which are extremely atypical of VO languages but distinctive of Sinitic, are attested in some Tai-Kadai languages in Southern China. The prevalence of such typologically unusual traits among different linguistic groups in the Lingnan region of Southern China provides strong support for its status as a linguistic area. Devising and adopting a ‘mutualist’ approach, we analyse the typological data of over 280 language varieties, which we believe illustrates and strongly supports the idea that Western Lingnan qualifies as a linguistic area in its own right according to criteria widely recognized by areal linguists. The approach proposed in this study can be applied to other putative linguistic areas around the world to study the mechanisms and outcomes of contact-induced change under a specific set of ecological conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Datao Lin ◽  
Xiaoying Zheng ◽  
Benjamin Sanogo ◽  
Tao Ding ◽  
Xi Sun ◽  

Abstract Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are invasive mosquito species and significantly impact human health in southern China. Microbiota are confirmed to affect the development and immunity of mosquitoes. However, scientists have focused more on midgut microbiota of female mosquitoes and bacterial differences between female and male Aedes mosquitoes. The relationship between the midgut and entire body microbiota of Aedes is unclear. In this study, we collected mosquito samples reared under the same laboratory conditions and compared the microbial composition of midgut and entire bodies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Methods In this study, we collected mosquito samples reared under the same laboratory conditions and compared the microbial composition of midgut and entire bodies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results A total of 341 OTUs were identified, showing that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum and Methylobacterium the dominant genus in both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The bacterial diversity and community structures of the entire bodies were similar between males and females in both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Conversely, the bacterial compositions of male and female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were significantly different. NMDS analysis, UPGMA analysis, diversity indices and OTU distribution demonstrated that compositions and structures in midgut microbiota were similar but significantly different in the entire bodies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Functional prediction analysis showed that metabolism and environmental information processing were the dominant KEGG pathways at level 1. Our study showed that there were significantly different level 2 and 3 KEGG pathways in the midgut microbiota (16 level 2 and 24 level 3) and the entire bodies (33 level 2 and 248 level 3) between female Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti. Conclusions Our findings that Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus reared in the same laboratory harbor a similar gut bacterial microbiome but different entire body microbiota imply that the gut microbiota of adult mosquitoes is environmentally determined regardless of the host genotype, but the entire body microbiota is more genetically determined. Our findings improved the understanding of the microbiota in the entire and partial tissues of Aedes mosquitoes. Graphical abstract

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