Warm Season
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2021 ◽  
pp. 101-108
Iryna Proskurina ◽  
Liudmyla Nahorna

The aim of the research was to study the epizootological features of bovicolosis and sifunculatosis and to determine their biological features. Materials and methods. Eight groups of animals were examined, 15 animals in each, including cows, heifers and calves. Groups of calves consisted of 13 heifers and 17 bulls. A total of 103 females and 17 male cattle were examined. Results. During observations, it was noted that in most cases, certain species of ectoparasites were found on different animals. In the case of their simultaneous parasitism on one animal, populations occupied different parts of the host's body. The causative agents of sifunculatosis (L. vituli) and bovicolosis (B. bovis) were determined. During the study of epizootological features of sifunculatosis and bovicolosis, attention was paid to the seasonality of the invasion – the minimum intensity of the invasion was observed in the warm season, the maximum – in winter. The extent of invasion among calves reached 100 %. The biological features of ectoparasites were studied. According to the data obtained, it was determined that linognathus are greater than B. bovis at all stages of development. Egg size 0.8–0.9 mm, larvae go through all stages of molting from 0.7 mm to 3.3 mm, adults reach a size of 3.3–4.0 mm. However, the eggs of B. bovis reached 0.3–0.5 mm, the size of the larvae 0.4–1.0 mm, adults ranged from 1 mm to 1.8 mm. Conclusions. It was noted that the intensity of the infestation of bovicolosis and sifunculatosis increases in the cold season. The young are most prone to lesions.

itsrj ◽  
2021 ◽  
James L. Pinkney ◽  
Kelly A. Laplante ◽  
Adam G. Dale

2021 ◽  
Yusuke Watanabe ◽  
Itaru Nakamura ◽  
Yuri Miura ◽  
Hidehiro Watanabe

Abstract Background: Although listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a high mortality rate, studies of listeriosis from Asia are limited. We aimed to compare the characteristics of listeriosis and non-listeriosis (defined as bacteremia without Listeria monocytegenes infection) in Japan.Methods: We conducted a case–control study of adults with listeriosis or with bacteremia without L. monocytegenes infection from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019, at Tokyo Medical University Hospital in Japan. We recorded the incidence of admissions and the clinical characteristics, including age and sex; underlying disease; clinical symptoms; onset month; whether listeriosis was community-associated or health care–associated; medicine; blood count; biochemical findings; antibiotics use; admission to the intensive care unit; and outcome.Results: A total of 12 patients were included in the case group and 28 patients were included in the control group. Most cases of listeriosis were present in patients of an advanced age, with underlying disease, and/or on immunosuppressant therapy. Two patients died within 30 days and one developed a brain abscess. Listeriosis onset was associated with the warm season (90.9% vs. 53.8%; P = 0.033), steroid use (54.5% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.042), and a lower ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (9.46 vs. 18.44; P = 0.015).Conclusion: The incidence of listeriosis in this study was similar to that in other Asian countries and the 30-day mortality rate was 18.2%. We observed that listeriosis onset was associated with the warm season, steroid use, and a lower ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
José Ignacio Nazif-Munoz ◽  
Pablo Martínez ◽  
Augusta Williams ◽  
John Spengler

Abstract Background There remains a dearth of cross-city comparisons on the impact of climate change through extreme temperature and precipitation events on road safety. We examined trends in traffic fatalities, injuries and property damage associated with high temperatures and heavy rains in Boston (USA) and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Methods Official publicly available data on daily traffic outcomes and weather conditions during the warm season (May to September) were used for Boston (2002–2015) and Santo Domingo (2013–2017). Daily maximum temperatures and mean precipitations for each city were considered for classifying hot days, warm days, and warm nights, and wet, very wet, and extremely wet days. Time-series analyses were used to assess the relationship between temperature and precipitation and daily traffic outcomes, using a quasi-Poisson regression. Results In Santo Domingo, the presence of a warm night increased traffic fatalities with a rate ratio (RR) of 1.31 (95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.00,1.71). In Boston, precipitation factors (particularly, extremely wet days) were associated with increments in traffic injuries (RR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.32) and property damages (RR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.51). Conclusion During the warm season, mixed associations between weather conditions and traffic outcomes were found across Santo Domingo and Boston. In Boston, increases in heavy precipitation events were associated with higher traffic injuries and property damage. As climate change-related heavy precipitation events are projected to increase in the USA, the associations found in this study should be of interest for road safety planning in a rapidly changing environment.

2021 ◽  
Xinru Li ◽  
Simon Donner

Abstract Marine heatwaves (MHWs), periods of anomalously warm sea surface temperature (SST) which can have significant impacts on marine ecosystems, have increased in frequency and severity over recent decades. Many coastal systems (e.g. coral reefs) are particularly vulnerable to warm-season heat stress when temperature can exceed organisms’ thermal thresholds and lead to mass mortality. While many studies have examined the change of the warm-season heat stress occurrence over time, e.g., for coral reefs, there has been less analysis of the thermal structure of heat stress events. Here we examined the trend in the characteristics of warm-season heat stress (referred to as warm-season MHWs) at the global-scale from 1985 to 2019, using multiple metrics for each of duration, peak intensity, accumulated heat stress, heating rates and level of intensity. The results showed that warm-season MHWs have become more frequent, longer-lasting, featured higher peak intensity and accumulated heat stress across most of the ocean over the past four decades. Furthermore, decomposition of the trends in warm-season MHWs structure showed that the increased accumulated heat stress was predominantly driven by the increased duration rather than the increased intensity, especially in the western and central equatorial Pacific. The results contribute to improving the understanding of warm-season MHWs, which may help inform the prediction of their impacts on marine ecosystems as well as marine conservation and management under climate change.

2021 ◽  
Patrick Carr ◽  
Simon Isaac Fordyce ◽  
Jennifer Lachowiec ◽  
Sherry Bishop ◽  
Heather Kristen Fryer ◽  

Xiaoying Xue ◽  
Guoyu Ren ◽  
Xiangde Xu ◽  
Xiubao Sun ◽  
Guowei Yang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 131-135
Ajay Singh Kaurav ◽  

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucoma (L.) R. Br.], belongs to family Poaceae (section Paniceae), is the world’s hardiest warm-season cereal crop with the annual rainfall of 150 mm to 1000 mm.Maximum mycelial growth was recorded in potato dextrose carrot agar medium (86.33 mm) followed by Pearl millet Potato dextrose agar (83.67 mm), potato dextrose agar (78.33 mm), Pearl millet carrot dextrose agar (71.67 mm), Pearl millet potato agar (68.33 mm), Carrot dextrose agar (60.67 mm), Pearl millet grain potato dextrose agar (58.33 mm), Oat meal agar (51.67 mm), Pearl millet dextrose agar (51.67 mm), Calcium carbonate agar (42.67 mm), Malt agar (41.00 mm), Water agar (37.33 mm), Pearl millet grain dextrose agar (35.33 mm), Pearl millet agar (30.00) and Yeast extract agar (28.33 mm) while minimum growth was recorded in Pearl millet grain agar (27.33 mm).

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