yield loss
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
S. N. Yazid ◽  
K. Ahmad ◽  
M. S. F. A. Razak ◽  
Z. A. Rahman ◽  
K. Ramachandran ◽  

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 276 ◽  
pp. 108399
Yongfeng Wu ◽  
Binhui Liu ◽  
Zhihong Gong ◽  
Xin Hu ◽  
Juncheng Ma ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 126441
Xiang Kong ◽  
Peng Peng ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Kunpu Zhang ◽  
Zhengjiang Hu ◽  

Nahil Abebe ◽  
Mulugeta Negeri ◽  
Emana Getu ◽  
Thangavel Selvara

Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop as being consumed as staple food in the world as well as in Ethiopia. The production of wheat in Ethiopia decreased due to the incidence of insect pests. Out of insects’ pests the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is the recent one that causes yield loss either directly or indirectly. Methods: The experiment was carried out at selected districts of West Showa zone, Ethiopia during off cropping season 2019 to evaluate the yield reduction in wheat crop due to the invasion of Russian wheat aphids. Malamar, Dimethoate, neem seeds, leaves, Beaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were used in form of spray. Result: However, Malamar and Dimethoate highly significantly lowered the population of Diuraphis noxia. The combination of Beaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopleae significantly lowered the population of Russian wheat aphid. The combination of Neem leaf and Neem seeds, as well as Beaveria bassiana, proved to be effective against Russian wheat aphid yet they were protected and sound against the environments. Malamar showed the maximum decrease in Diuraphis noxia populations followed by Dimethoate, the combination of Beaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopleae.

2022 ◽  
Andong Cai ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Tianjing Ren ◽  
Wenju Zhang ◽  
Xiaoke Wang ◽  

Abstract Global crop yield loss due to ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations is a major challenge to food security, but a dose-response association is not easy to quantify. Here, we propose using a new metric, O3 sensitivity of crop yield (Yo), to estimate yield loss under different O3 time intervals using four observational databases. The Yo metric shows a non-linear parabola with elevated atmospheric O3 for wheat, maize, rice, soybean, and assorted vegetables. Spatial heterogeneity of yield loss varies as a function of crop type and O3 intervals. Estimates of yield loss from ozone suggest recent losses (2017-2019) may reach as high as 537 million tonnes, with a significant proportion coming with lower (30-40 ppb) exposure (325 million tonnes). Our results suggest that previous research, which only included higher (>40 ppb ozone), may have had grossly underestimated the negative effect of atmospheric O3 on crop production. Suppose these results are endemic to global crop production. In that case, additional research will be necessary to reassess ozone sensitivity and dose-responses, both spatially and temporally, to determine future air pollution impacts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Dewa Ngurah Suprapta

Anthracnose disease on chili pepper has been known to seriously interfere with the plant growth and obviously reduce the yield. The disease is caused by Colletotrichum spp. In Bali, Indonesia, six species of Colletotrichum have been identified: Colletotrichum scovillei, C. acutatum, C. nymphaeae, C. gloeosporioides, C. truncatum, and C. fructicola. However, among them the C. scovillei was found to be the most prevalent cause of anthracnose on chili pepper in Bali. Two species of antagonist against C. scovillei, namely Paenibacillus polymyxa C1 and Bacillus siamensis C7B, have been identified. In this study the effectiveness of P. polymyxa C1 formulation was evaluated under greenhouse condition on chili pepper cultivars Cabe Besar. Application of formulation was conducted by a mini hand sprayer once to five times with a week interval. Results of the study showed that treatment with five applications significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the disease incidence, disease intensity, and the yield loss of chili pepper cultivar Cabe Besar. Alose relationship was observed between the number of applications with disease intensity, with coefficient of determination (R2) at 0.929. These results revealed that the formulation of P. polymyxa C1 effectively control the anthracnose disease on chili pepper, particularly on chili pepper cultivar Cabe Besar, and thus can be recommended for field testing to confirm its stability under field conditions.

Irriga ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 687-695
Carlos Quiloango-Chimarro ◽  
Rubens Duarte Coelho ◽  
Jéfferson de Oliveira Costa ◽  
Rafael Gomez-Arrieta

The crop water stress index (CWSI), an index derived from canopy temperature, has been widely studied as a physiological indicator of plant water status to optimize irrigation in common beans. However, it is not clear how this index could contribute to yield prediction as a decision support tool in irrigation management. This paper aimed to use the CWSI for predicting yield loss in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to water stress under drip irrigation. A rain shelter experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with five replications. The indeterminate growth cultivar TAA Dama was subjected to three irrigation treatments: 100% of the field capacity (FC), 75 and 50% FC from 20 days after sowing (DAS) until the end of the crop cycle. Grain yield was reduced by 42% under 50% FC treatment. Furthermore, stomatal conductance was reduced under this treatment, whereas the CWSI and canopy temperature increased as irrigation levels decreased. The relationship between grain yield and CWSI (R2=0.76, RSME=2.35g) suggests that canopy temperature data could be used to forecast grain yield losses. In conclusion, farmers can have a low-cost, effective technique for making water management decisions in common bean.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Irene N. Gentzel ◽  
Erik W. Ohlson ◽  
Margaret G. Redinbaugh ◽  
Guo-Liang Wang

AbstractAgricultural production is hampered by disease, pests, and environmental stresses. To minimize yield loss, it is important to develop crop cultivars with resistance or tolerance to their respective biotic and abiotic constraints. Transformation techniques are not optimized for many species and desirable cultivars may not be amenable to genetic transformation, necessitating inferior cultivar usage and time-consuming introgression through backcrossing to the preferred variety. Overcoming these limitations will greatly facilitate the development of disease, insect, and abiotic stress tolerant crops. One such avenue for rapid crop improvement is the development of viral systems to deliver CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing technology to plants to generate targeted beneficial mutations. Viral delivery of genomic editing constructs can theoretically be applied to span the entire host range of the virus utilized, circumventing the challenges associated with traditional transformation and breeding techniques. Here we explore the types of viruses that have been optimized for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery, the phenotypic outcomes achieved in recent studies, and discuss the future potential of this rapidly advancing technology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
T. Riaz ◽  
M. Ashfaq ◽  
Z. Khan

Abstract Vegetables are an important source of income and high-value crops for small farmers. Chilli (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most economically important vegetables of Pakistan and it is grown throughout the country. It is a rich source of nutrition especially vitamins A, B, C and E along with minerals as folic acid, manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and molybdenum (Mo). Chilli possesses seven times more amount of vitamin C than an orange. Vitamin A, C and beta-carotenoids are strong antioxidants to scavenge the free radicals. Chilli production is restricted due to various biotic factors. Among these viruses, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive and menacing agents that inflicts heavy and colossal losses that accounted for 50% yield loss both in quality and quantity. Pathogen-Derived Resistance (PDR) approach is considered one of the effective approaches to manage plant viruses. In this study, ChiVMV was characterized on a molecular level, the coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic plants were challenged with the virus to evaluate the level of resistance of plants against the virus. It was observed that the plants expressing CP gene have partial resistance against the virus in terms of symptoms’ development and virus accumulation. Translation of this technique into elite chilli varieties will be resulted to mitigate the ChiVMV in the crop as well as an economic benefit to the farmers.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Nicole Dron ◽  
Steven Simpfendorfer ◽  
Tim Sutton ◽  
Georgina Pengilley ◽  
Kristy Hobson

Chickpea production in Australia is constrained by both waterlogging and the root disease Phytophthora root rot (PRR). Soil saturation is an important pre-condition for significant disease development for many soil-borne Phytophthora spp. In wet years, water can pool in low lying areas within a field, resulting in waterlogging, which, in the presence of PRR, can result in a significant yield loss for Australian chickpea varieties. In these circumstances, the specific cause of death is often difficult to discern, as the damage is rapid and the spread of PRR can be explosive in nature. The present study describes the impact of soil waterlogging on oxygen availability and the ability of P. medicaginis to infect chickpea plants. Late waterlogging in combination with PRR reduced the total plant biomass by an average of 94%; however, waterlogging alone accounted for 88% of this loss across three reference genotypes. Additional experiments found that under hypoxic conditions associated with waterlogging, P. medicaganis did not proliferate as determined by zoospore counts and DNA detection using qPCR. Consequently, minimizing waterlogging damage through breeding and agronomic practices should be a key priority for integrated disease management, as waterlogging alone results in plant stunting, yield loss and a reduced resistance to PRR.

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