native species
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Ansari ◽  
J. Altafa ◽  
A. Ramzan ◽  
Z. Ahmed ◽  
S. Khalil ◽  
...  

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Author(s):  
Bin Wu ◽  
Runshi Xie ◽  
Gary W. Knox ◽  
Hongmin Qin ◽  
Mengmeng Gu

Crapemyrtle bark scale [CMBS (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae)], a newly emerged pest in the United States, has spread to 16 U.S. states and unexpectedly spread on a native species american beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) in Texas and Louisiana in 2016 since it was initially reported on crapemyrtles (Lagerstroemia sp.) in Texas in 2004. The infestation of CMBS negatively impacted the flowering of crapemyrtles. We observed the infestation on the two most commercially available edible fig (Ficus carica) cultivars Beer’s Black and Chicago Hardy in a preliminary trial in 2018. To help estimate CMBS potential in aggravating risks to the ecosystem stability and the green industry, we conducted a host range and suitability test using ‘Bok Tower’ american beautyberry as a positive control with other eight beautyberry (Callicarpa) species [mexican beautyberry (C. acuminata), ‘Profusion’ bodinieri beautyberry (C. bodinieri), ‘Issai’ purple beautyberry (C. dichotoma), japanese beautyberry (C. japonica var. luxurians), ‘Alba’ white-fruited asian beautyberry (C. longissima), taiwan beautyberry (C. pilosissima), luanta beautyberry (C. randaiensis), and willow-leaf beautyberry (C. salicifolia)] and three fig (Ficus) species [creeping fig (F. pumila), roxburgh fig (F. auriculata), and waipahu fig (F. tikoua)] over 25 weeks. All the tested beautyberry species and waipahu fig sustainably supported the development and reproduction of nymphal CMBS and were confirmed as CMBS hosts. Furthermore, comparing with the control, mexican beautyberry, ‘Profusion’ bodinieri beautyberry, taiwan beautyberry, and willow-leaf beautyberry were significantly less suitable, while ‘Issai’ purple beautyberry, japanese beautyberry, ‘Alba’ white-fruited asian beautyberry, and luanta beautyberry were as suitable as ‘Bok Tower’ american beautyberry. Thus, when using beautyberries in landscapes, their different potential to host CMBS should be considered to minimize spreading CMBS through the native ecosystems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 135 ◽  
pp. 108558
Author(s):  
Daniel Scherrer ◽  
Matthias Bürgi ◽  
Arthur Gessler ◽  
Michael Kessler ◽  
Michael P. Nobis ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Fire ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Author(s):  
Leonel J. R. Nunes ◽  
Catarina I. R. Meireles ◽  
Carlos J. Pinto Gomes ◽  
Nuno M. C. Almeida Ribeiro

Invasive species are an environmental problem affecting worldwide ecosystems. In the case of Acacia dealbata Link., the negative impacts affect the productivity of the forests due to the competition established with native species while contributing to a significant increment in the available fuel load, increasing the risk of fire. In Portugal, chemical and mechanical methods are mostly used in the control of these species. However, the costs are often unsustainable in the medium term, being abandoned before completing the tasks, allowing the recovery of the invasive species. The establishment of value chains for the biomass resulting from these actions was pointed out by several authors as a solution for the sustainability of the control process, as it contributes to reducing costs. However, the problems in quantifying the biomass availability make it challenging to organize and optimize these actions. This work, which started from a dendrometrical analysis carried out in stands of A. dealbata, created a model to assess woody biomass availability. The model proved to be statistically significant for stands with trees younger than 20 years old. However, the amount of data collected and the configuration of the settlements analyzed do not allow extrapolation of the model presented to older settlements.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Geraldine Tierney

This assessment synthesizes information about current and projected climate and related impacts at Martin Van Buren National Historic Park (MAVA) in order to help park stewards understand, plan, and manage for climate change. Working with a group of park managers, scientists, and local stake-holders, six key park resources were identified for assessment herein: Climate, Water quantity, Phenology, Agriculture, Trees, and Cultural resources. Where data was available, this analysis assessed current condition and considered mid-century (2030–2060) and end-of-century (2100) impacts based on a range of projected future climate conditions, including reduced, low, high and highest emission pathways. Climate change stressors identified for MAVA include: Increased temperature, increased hot days, increased precipitation, increased extreme precipitation events, increased flooding and erosion, shifting ranges of both native species and pest, pathogen and weed species, and phenological shifts and mismatches.


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Author(s):  
Taylor N. Turner ◽  
Thomas J. Dean ◽  
Jeff S. Kuehny

Native hardwood regeneration in the southeast United States is hindered by repeat disturbance events and the presence of invasive species. Our study aimed to determine the ability of native species in an unmanaged urban forest fragment to persist following high winds from hurricane Gustav in 2008 and subsequent salvage logging. In 2009, researchers estimated the density and composition of the regeneration and overstory trees as well as percent crown cover of invasive Chinese privet. Percent Chinese privet cover was visibly high, leading them to believe it may be inhibiting native hardwood establishment. Ten years later in 2019, we returned to the plots to take repeat measurements. Forest composition remains the same and privet crown cover remains high. There has been no increase in regenerating individuals, and overstory trees per hectare and basal area remains low. These results confirm that the heavy Chinese privet presence is persistent long term and will require management to promote reproduction of native overstory tree species.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrea Lombardo ◽  
Giuseppina Brocherel ◽  
Carla Donnini ◽  
Gianluca Fichi ◽  
Alessia Mariacher ◽  
...  

AbstractBaylisascaris procyonis is a nematode parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), and it can be responsible for a severe form of larva migrans in humans. This parasite has been reported from many countries all over the world, after translocation of its natural host outside its native geographic range, North America. In the period between January and August 2021, 21 raccoons were cage-trapped and euthanized in Tuscany (Central Italy), in the context of a plan aimed at eradicating a reproductive population of this non-native species. All the animals were submitted for necroscopic examination. Adult ascariids were found in the small intestine of seven raccoons (prevalence 33.3%). Parasites have been identified as B. procyonis based on both morphometric and molecular approaches. The aim of the present article is to report the first finding of this zoonotic parasite from Italy, highlighting the sanitary risks linked to the introduction of alien vertebrate species in new areas. Graphical Abstract


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carmen Hoffbeck ◽  
Casey P terHorst

Abstract Novel ecological interactions can drive natural selection in non-native species and trait evolution may increase the likelihood of invasion. We can gain insight into the potential role of evolution in invasion success by comparing traits of successful individuals in the invasive range with the traits of individuals from the native range in order to determine which traits are most likely to allow species to overcome barriers to invasion. Here we used Medicago polymorpha , a non-native legume species from the Mediterranean that has invaded six continents around the world, to quantify differences in life history traits among genotypes collected from the native and invasive range and grown in a common greenhouse environment. We found significant differences in fruit and seed production and biomass allocation between invasive and native range genotypes. Invasive genotypes had greater fecundity, but invested more energy into belowground growth relative to native genotypes. Beyond the variation between ranges, we found additional variation among genotypes within each range in flowering phenology, total biomass, biomass allocation, and fecundity. We found non-linear relationships between some traits and fitness that were much stronger for plants from the invasive range. These trait differences between ranges suggest that stabilizing selection on biomass, resource allocation, and flowering phenology imposed during or after introduction of this species may increase invasion success.


Author(s):  
Ying Ki Law ◽  
Calvin Lee ◽  
Chun Chiu Pang ◽  
Billy Hau ◽  
Jin Wu

Landslides are common in tropical and subtropical regions with hilly terrains and heavy rainstorms, which cause significant economic, ecological, and social impacts. Natural forest succession is usually slow on landslide scars due to poor soil structure and the lack of seeds of woody plant seeds, and often comes with a higher risk of repeated landslide. Ecological forest restoration has recently been suggested as an effective alternative to restore the exposed landslide scars, however, a comprehensive study to identify effective landslide restoration strategies remains lacking, particularly associated with seed treatment methods and species selection. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of different seed coating treatments of both pioneer and later successional tree species of different seed sizes on seed germination in a one-year study on three landslides in Hong Kong. Our results show that bare seeds had germination rates of 17 to 67% across all selected species (n=7). Biochar-dominant seed coating formulation boosted an additional 9.33 (SE= 0.04) in seed germination rate, while the clay-dominant seed coating formulation did not show significant effect on germination. Our results also show that medium and large-seeded non-pioneer species have significantly higher germination rates than pioneer species. These results collectively suggest that direct seeding using a biochar seed coat is a manageable and useful method to enhance tree seed germination—an essential first step to restore the forests after landslide disturbances in Hong Kong, with potential to be extended to other humid tropical and subtropical forests.


2022 ◽  
Vol 50 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Yulia S. Kolosova ◽  
Grigory S. Potapov ◽  
Elizaveta A. Spitsyna ◽  
Vitaly M. Spitsyn ◽  
Ivan N. Bolotov

Nest aggregations of mud dauber wasps increase substrate heterogeneity and provide suitable sites for colonization by other invertebrate species. The mud dauber wasp Sceliphron fuscum Klug, 1801 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) abundantly occurs throughout the Seychelles Archipelago, Republic of Seychelles. Here, we estimated the taxonomic richness of the hymenopteran assemblage associated with S. fuscum’s nest aggregations, using material collected from the Inner Seychelles in 2016. Furthermore, we examine available historical survey data in order to assess possible changes in this association over decades. We discovered that from 1936 to 1938, seven hymenopteran species were associated with the nest aggregations of S. fuscum on Mahé and Praslin islands, representing six native taxa and one invasive species. From the material collected in 2016, we found one native and three invasive hymenopteran species associated to S. fuscum nests. Our findings could indicate a replacement of native species associated with the mud dauber wasps’ nest aggregations by recently introduced alien taxa on the Seychelles Archipelago.


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