Young Adolescents
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2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Chunyan Yu ◽  
Chaohua Lou ◽  
Qiguo Lian ◽  
Xiaowen Tu ◽  
Jiashuai Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Studies on very young adolescents’ romantic and sexual experiences would help inform the context in which early sex arises. However, such studies are scant in China due to sparse data and cultural issues. Method This study used the GEAS baseline data conducted among1776 adolescents in Shanghai. Multi-group latent class analysis was used to explore adolescents’ romantic and sexual experiences patterns and subgroups. Multi-nominal logistic regression was performed to identify the factors distinguishing different subgroups subsequently. Results There were gender differences in the lifetime prevalence for very young adolescents’ romantic and sexual-related behaviors. The Multi-group latent class analysis indicated that the participants could be classified into three classes: general group, early romance group, and sex exploratory group. Multi-nominal logistic regression showed youth in the early romance group were more likely to had friends of both gender, ever had a romantic relationship, and had more autonomy in deciding where to go than the general group; while male respondents in the sex exploratory group were older, ever had a romantic relationship, believed that boys should be more sexually active and more proactive than girls, had more autonomy on deciding where to go, and perceived less school connection and neighborhood cohesion. Female respondents in the sex exploratory group were older and less empowered in decision-making than the general group. Conclusions The result provides a picture of romantic and sexual behavior patterns among both gender of very young adolescents in China. Current sex education needs not only to be culturally appropriate but also to address the harm of gender inequality and stereotypes, as well as to provide accessible and supportive services to help young adolescents personalize their received information and strengthen their skills in communication, decision making, and critical thinking.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10409
Jorge Asensio-Ramón ◽  
José M. Rodríguez-Ferrer ◽  
Ana Manzano-León ◽  
José Manuel Aguilar-Parra ◽  
María del Pilar Díaz-López ◽  

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused great social changes, some of them not yet described. This article tries to give an answer to how it has impacted Spanish adolescents in the field of domestic activity and how they use their free time and if there are differences between the normal population and people who have been involved in non-formal education programs, such as Scouts. In addition, young adolescents who actively participate as Scouts have been compared and, if so, belonging to a group has changed their behavior pattern. The sample has been obtained in a probabilistic way representing all the autonomous communities of Spain with a total of 1280 participants. To obtain the data, an online questionnaire was prepared with which qualitative analyzes were subsequently carried out. The results show statistically significant differences in behavior, both in domestic responsibilities and in what they do with their free time. Young Scouts display different behaviors than their non-Scout peers.

2021 ◽  
Naomi D'souza ◽  
Rishikesh V Behere ◽  
Bindu Patni ◽  
Madhavi Deshpande ◽  
Dattatray Bhat ◽  

Background: Nutritional interventions during the first 1000 days of life improves lifelong health. Better pre-conceptional maternal nutrition improves the nutrition of the early embryo. Vitamins B12 and folate are important for fetal neural development. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in India. Methods: In the Pune Rural Intervention in Young Adolescents (PRIYA) adolescents (N=557, 226 females) were provided with vitamin B12 (2μg/day) with or without multiple micronutrients, or a placebo, from preconception until delivery. All groups received mandatory iron and folic acid. We used the Bayleys Scale of Infant Development (BSID-III) at 24-42 months of age to investigate effects on offspring neurodevelopment. We examined cord blood concentrations of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Results: Participants in the three groups had similar baseline B12 levels. These improved in the B12 supplemented groups at pre-conceptional and pregnancy (28 weeks gestation) measurements, reflected in higher cord holo-TC levels compared to the placebo. Neurodevelopmental outcomes are available for 74 children. Offspring in the B12 alone group (n=21) performed better than the placebo (n=27) on cognition (p=0.044) and language (p=0.020) domains (adjusted for maternal baseline B12 levels). There were no differences between the B12+MMN (n=26) and placebo group. Cord blood BDNF levels were highest in the B12 alone group (not statistically significant). Conclusion: Pre-conceptional vitamin B12 supplementation improved maternal B12 status and offspring neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. The usefulness of cord BDNF as a marker of brain development needs further investigation. Our results highlight the importance of intervening in the pre-conceptional period.

Ozge Yilmaz Topal ◽  
Ayse Metin ◽  
İlknur Kulhas Celik ◽  
Azize Pinar Metbulut ◽  
Selma Alim Aydin ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Lei Cao-Lei ◽  
Sandra Yogendran ◽  
Romane Dufoix ◽  
Guillaume Elgbeili ◽  
David P. Laplante ◽  

Gene-by-environment interactions influence brain development from conception to adulthood. In particular, the prenatal period is a window of vulnerability for the interplay between environmental and genetic factors to influence brain development. Rodent and human research demonstrates that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) alters hippocampal volumes. Although PNMS affects hippocampal size on average, similar degrees of PNMS lead to different effects in different individuals. This differential susceptibility to the effects of PNMS may be due to genetic variants. Hence, we investigated the role of genetic variants of two SNPs that are candidates to moderate the effects of PNMS on hippocampal volume: COMT (rs4680) and BDNF (rs6265). To investigate this, we assessed 53 children who were in utero during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. In June 1998 their mothers responded to questionnaires about their objective, cognitive, and subjective levels of stress from the ice storm. When children were 11 1/2 years old, T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained using a 3T scanner and analyzed to determine hippocampal volumes. We collected and genotyped the children’s saliva DNA. Moderation analyses were conducted to determine whether either or both of the SNPs moderate the effect of PNMS on hippocampal volumes. We found that objective hardship was associated with right hippocampal volume in girls, and that the BDNF and COMT genotypes were associated with left hippocampal volume in boys and girls. In addition, SNPs located on COMT moderated the effect of maternal objective distress in boys, and subjective distress in girls, on both right hippocampal volume. Thus, we conclude that an individual’s genotype alters their susceptibility to the effects of PNMS.

2021 ◽  
pp. 027243162110367
Jane Leer ◽  
Anna Gassman-Pines ◽  
Eric Djé Blé ◽  
Josephine Kainessie ◽  
Catherine Kennedy ◽  

This study investigated attitudes toward restrictive gender norms among adolescents in Côte d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone (pooled N = 1,793, M age(baseline) = 10.3, M age(follow-up) = 11.6, 50% boys/girls). We examined individual and contextual predictors of gender attitudes, assessed change in gender attitudes over 2 years, and estimated the effect of a community-based norms diffusion intervention. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being a boy, exposure to violence against women, and restrictive norms among same-gender peers predicted support for a patriarchal division of adult roles, lower educational status for girls, and acceptance of gender-based violence. In contrast to evidence from Western contexts, we found limited evidence of increased flexibility in gender attitudes during early adolescence. However, the intervention significantly reduced support for restrictive gender norms, especially among boys. Findings reveal novel pathways through which young adolescents acquire beliefs about gender, and provide encouraging evidence regarding community-based approaches to shifting adolescents’ gender attitudes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Vimalanand S. Prabhu ◽  
Neha Bansal ◽  
Zhiwen Liu ◽  
Rodney Finalle ◽  
Martin Sénécal ◽  

Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause various cancers and can be prevented through vaccination. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has set an HPV vaccination completion target in 13-year-old children to 80% by 2026. While HPV vaccine coverage (proportion ever vaccinated) estimates are available, annual uptakes (proportion initiating vaccine in a year) in the United States (U.S.) are not well-known. Methods We analyzed MarketScan® claims database to assess HPV vaccination uptakes in the U.S. among the 9- to 26-year-olds in 2006–2016. The annual uptake was the ratio of the number of enrollees who had a first record of an HPV vaccine during the year, and the number of enrollees of similar age and sex that year. Results Uptake was below 1% among children turning 9 and 10 years old during the year. Since 2009 among female and since 2013 among males, the annual uptake has been the highest in those turning 13 years old (19.7% among females and 17.6% among males in 2016). Catch-up vaccination among older adolescents and young adults increased after Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations, but eventually slowed down as more younger persons were vaccinated. Most young adolescents were vaccinated by pediatricians, whereas young adult women were predominantly vaccinated by obstetricians/gynecologists and young adult males by family physicians. While only about half of the adolescents had well-check visits, the majority of those who initiated HPV vaccination had one the same year. Conclusion Continued increase in uptake is needed to reach the ACS 2026 goals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 40-46
Zhipeng Wu ◽  
Zhening Liu ◽  
Zhulin Zou ◽  
Feiwen Wang ◽  
Mengran Zhu ◽  

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 981
Sarah Musa ◽  
Ismail Dergaa ◽  
Mariam Ali Abdulmalik ◽  
Achraf Ammar ◽  
Karim Chamari ◽  

Parental vaccine hesitancy (VH) remains a barrier to full population inoculation, hence herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We aimed to determine parental VH rate, subgroups and influencing factors related to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among their young adolescents (12–15 years old) in Qatar. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted from 17 May to 3 June using vaccination booking records of 4023 young adolescents. Sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and nationality), health status and BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination booking status were analysed. Among respondents, the VH rate was 17.9%. Parents of 12-years adolescents were more hesitant (21.6%) as compared to the 13- (16.0%) and 15- (15.2%) years groups (p < 0.05). Parents of adolescents belonging to Gulf Countries (97% Qatari) were more hesitant (35.2%) as compared to the four remaining groups of nationalities (Asiatic; excluding Gulf Countries), North-African, African (excluding North-African), and European/American/Oceanian, 13.3–20.4%, (p < 0.001). Parental VH rates were higher when adolescents suffered from chronic disease as compared to those without the chronic disease (21.3% vs. 17.4%, p < 0.05) or who previously were COVID-19 infected as compared to non-previously COVID-19 infected (24.1 vs. 17.5%, p < 0.01). Results of logistic regression revealed that age groups, nationalities, and recovery from COVID-19 were the main predictors of VH level. Precisely, parents of 12 years old adolescents were 38% more likely to be hesitant as compared to the parents of the 15 years old adolescents (OR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.12–1.70). Compared with the Gulf countries, parents of adolescents belonging to the other nationality categories; namely North-African, African, Asiatic and European/American/Oceanian were 48% (95%CI: 0.36–0.65), 41% (95% CI: 0.27–0.62), 38% (95%CI: 0.29–0.50) and 34% (95% CI 0.21–0.56) less likely to be hesitant, respectively. Furthermore, parents of young adolescents being previously COVID-19 infected were 37% more likely to be hesitant as compared to those with no previous COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.02–1.84). Effective communication strategies specifically targeting Gulf Country populations, parents of younger children aged 12 years and of those with chronic disease or have been previously infected with COVID-19 are crucial to build community trust and vaccine confidence, thereby increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. ii24-ii25
I Jabłońska ◽  
M Miszczyk ◽  
E Nowicka ◽  
Magrowski ◽  
R Tarnawski

Abstract BACKGROUND Intracranial germinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm, accounting for approximately two-thirds of central nervous system germ cell tumors, which occurs in the suprasellar region, pineal gland, or basal nuclei in children and young adolescents. Due to the rare occurrence, there is relatively high variability in treatment modalities. This article aims to assess the symptoms, and treatment outcomes of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for intracranial germinoma, based on tertiary center experience. METHODS The study includes retrospectively gathered data from 35 consecutive patients treated for intracranial germinoma between 1999–2020 at a single institution. The statistical analysis used basic statistical tools and the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The median age at diagnosis was 17 years (IQR 14–22), 85.7% of the patients were male. The majority of the patients had histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis (88.5%), 76% of which were non-secreting germinomas. The primary tumor was most frequently localized in the area of the pineal gland (34.3%), followed by bifocal (25.7%), suprasellar (17.1%), and basal germinoma (8.6%). The remaining patients had disseminated disease (14.3%). The most common symptoms at the onset of the disease were headache (54.3%), visual impairment (45.7%), vomiting (25.7%), polydipsia (22.9%), weight loss (17.1%), or minor neurological deficits (11.4%). As much as 54.3% of the patients presented with neuroendocrine disorders at diagnosis, and 42.9% of the patients presented radiological symptoms of hydrocephalus. Each patient received radiotherapy, which was preceded by chemotherapy in 77.1%, and surgery in 31.4% of the cases. The majority of the patients received radiotherapy to the ventricular system (51.4%), craniospinal irradiation (34.3%), or whole-brain radiotherapy (8.6%) followed by a focal boost in 88%. The remaining patient was treated with focal radiotherapy only. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate was found to be 97% and 87% respectively, including two patients who died despite disease control (pulmonary and ventricular embolism). The 5-year progression-free survival was 83%. CONCLUSIONS Despite variability in treatment methods, there is a relatively high cure and survival rate in patients with intracranial germinoma. However, the rare occurrence of the disease seems to negatively impact the diagnostic process. The tumor is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, presenting significant, often irreversible symptoms.

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