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Eyassu Mathewos ◽  
Waju Beyene ◽  
Feyera Gebissa ◽  
Shimeles Ololo ◽  
Dejene Melese ◽  

 Background: Availability is the relationship between the type and quantity of product or services needed and the type and quantity of product or services provided. Availability of essential medicines at facility level is an important factor to address patients' satisfaction and increase their health seeking behavior. The objective of this study is to determine the availability and associated factors of essential medicines in public health facilities of Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia. Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Based on WHO recommendation, thirty health facilities were selected from five districts and six health facilities were chosen from each district of the zone.  Availability of 29 key essential medicines that were selected from 2014 Ethiopian national essential medicine list were checked in stores and dispensaries as well as the store keepers, head of health facilities and dispensaries were selected for interview. The data were checked for completeness, edited, and coded then entered and analyzed using excels 2016 and SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics were computed and tables, graphs and numerical summary presented results. Result: Average availability of selected core essential medicines (n=29) was 78.6% in surveyed health facilities. With regard to stock level, 8% of the surveyed medicines were in critical level, 55.2% were in safe level and 36.8% were in over stock level. Six hundred six patients were participated in the study with a response rate of 97%. Among total respondents, 77.7% left the facility with all of their prescribed medicines while 22.3% received only part of their prescribed medicines. Conclusion: The availability of essential medicines was fairly high in surveyed health facilities during the study period. In this study, many patients seeking treatment in public health facilities failed to obtain significant proportion of prescribed medicines.               Peer Review History: Received: 4 November 2021; Revised: 10 December; Accepted: 22 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor:  Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.0/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] Dr. George Zhu, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, [email protected] Similar Articles: ACCESS TO MEDICINES STRATEGIES OF THE NATIONAL CANCER CONTROL PROGRAMME IN CAMEROON THE EFFICIENCY OF INEFFICIENCY: MEDICINE DISTRIBUTION IN SUDAN

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260326
Ricardo Antunes Dantas de Oliveira ◽  
Diego Ricardo Xavier Silva ◽  
Maurício Gonçalves e Silva

Snakebite accidents are considered category A neglected tropical diseases. Brazil stands out for snakebite accidents, mainly in the Amazon region. The best possible care after snakebite accidents is to obtain antiophidic sera on time. And the maximum ideal time to reach it is about 2 hours after an accident. Based on public health information and using a tool to analyze geographical accessibility, we evaluate the possibility of reaching Brazilian serum-providing health facilities from the relationship between population distribution and commuting time. In this exploratory descriptive study, the geographic accessibility of Brazilian population to health facilities that supply antiophidic serum is evaluated through a methodology that articulates several issues that influence the commuting time to health units (ACCESSMOD): population and facilities’ distribution, transportation network and means, relief and land use, which were obtained in Brazilian and international sources. The relative importance of the population without the possibility of reaching a facility in two hours is highlighted for Macro-Regions, States and municipalities. About nine million people live in locations more than two hours away from serum-providing facilities, with relevant variations between regions, states, and municipalities. States like Mato Grosso, Pará and Maranhão had the most important participation of population with reaching time problems to those units. The most significant gaps are found in areas with a dispersed population and sometimes characterized by a high incidence of snakebites, such as in the North of the country, especially in the Northeastern Pará state. Even using a 2010 population distribution information, because of the 2020 Census postponement, the tendencies and characteristics analyzed reveal challenging situations over the country. The growing availability of serum-providing health facilities, the enhanced possibilities of transporting accident victims, and even the availability of sera in other types of establishments are actions that would allow expanding the possibilities of access to serum supply.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Endalkachew Atnafu ◽  
Biftu Geda ◽  
Lemessa Oljira ◽  
Genanaw Atnafe ◽  
Dawit Tamiru ◽  

Background. Annually, around 121 million unintended pregnancies occur in the world and more than 73 million encountered abortion. Ethiopia is also losing 19.6% of mothers due to unsafe abortion. Despite that postabortion contraceptive service is a climactic entry point for the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and associated deaths, the service magnitude and determinants immediately before discharge are not characterized well in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of postabortion contraceptive utilization and associated factors among women receiving abortion care service before being discharged from health facilities in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 390 women receiving abortion care services. At discharge, data about contraceptive acceptance and related maternal characteristics were collected. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association between independent and dependent variables (postabortion contraceptive utilization). Analysis was done with SPSS 22. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05 . Result. The overall prevalence of postabortion contraceptive utilization was 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9, 85.4). Being unmarried (AOR, 0.05; 95% CI (0.02, 0.16)), having no history of previous abortion (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI (0.04, 0.34)), being multigravida (AOR 8.1; 95% CI (2.20, 13.40), lacking desire to have an additional child (AOR, 6.3; 95% CI (2.65, 15.34), and history of family planning use (AOR, 17.20; 95% CI (6.5, 38.60)) were determinants of postabortion contraceptive utilization before being discharged from the health facilities. Conclusion. Postabortion contraceptive utilization in Harar health facilities still needs improvement as per the WHO and national recommendations. Therefore, the family planning provision strategies should be convincing and friendly, especially for unmarried mothers, and those who had no history of abortion should be counseled in friendly and systematically convincing schemes for enabling them to take the service before discharge from the health facility.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (01) ◽  
pp. 508-518
Richmond Nsiah ◽  
Wisdom Takramah ◽  
Solomon Anum-Doku ◽  
Richard Avagu ◽  
Dominic Nyarko

Background: Stillbirths and neonatal deaths when poorly documented or collated, negatively affect the quality of decision and interventions. This study sought to assess the quality of routine neonatal mortalities and stillbirth records in health facilities and propose interventions to improve the data quality gaps. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study was employed. This study was carried out at three (3) purposively selected health facilities in Offinso North district. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths recorded in registers from 2015 to 2017, were recounted and compared with monthly aggregated data and District Health Information Management System 2 (DHIMS 2) data using a self-developed Excel Data Quality Assessment Tool (DQS).  An observational checklist was used to collect primary data on completeness and availability. Accuracy ratio (verification factor), discrepancy rate, percentage availability and completeness of stillbirths and neonatal mortality data were computed using the DQS tool. Findings: The results showed high discrepancy rate of stillbirth data recorded in registers compared with monthly aggregated reports (12.5%), and monthly aggregated reports compared with DHIMS 2 (13.5%). Neonatal mortalities data were under-reported in monthly aggregated reports, but over-reported in DHIMS 2. Overall data completeness was about 84.6%, but only 68.5% of submitted reports were supervised by facility in-charges. Delivery and admission registers availability were 100% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Quality of stillbirths and neonatal mortality data in the district is generally encouraging, but are not reliable for decision-making. Routine data quality audit is needed to reduce high discrepancies in stillbirth and neonatal mortality data in the district.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
Temesgen Tilahun ◽  
Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma ◽  
Motuma Getachew ◽  
Rut Oljira ◽  
Assefa Seme

Abstract Background Despite Ethiopia’s efforts to avail postpartum family planning (PPFP) services, the unmet need for family planning among postpartum women remains high. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess barriers and determinants of postpartum family-planning uptake among women visiting Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health (MNCH) services in public health facilities of western Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study design with a quantitative method was conducted on 989 postpartum women in Western Ethiopia from September 1 to October 30, 2020. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using pretested structured questionnaires, entered using EPI-INFO version 7.0, and analyzed by SPSS version 25. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were performed. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used and statistical significance was declared at P-value < 0.05. Result In this study, 56.1% of participants had used PPFP in the last year. The most commonly used method was injectable (51.7%). Family planning use before the index pregnancy (AOR = 2.09;95%CI:1.29,3,41),counselling on PPFP during antenatal care and delivery (AOR = 4.89;95%CI:2.31,10.37),health facility delivery (AOR = 7.61;95%CI:4.36,13.28), skilled birth attendance (AOR = 4.99;95%CI:2.88,8.64),COVID-19 restrictions (AOR = 0.59;95%CI:0.39,0.90) were factors associated with PPFP utilization. Being breastfeeding and amenorrhea were major reasons for not using postpartum family planning. Conclusion Post-partum family planning utilization among study participants was low. Given the associated factors, it is recommended that health facilities should make postpartum family planning one of their top priorities and focus on these factors to improve its utilization.

2022 ◽  
Piyush Kumar

BackgroundAcute treatment in emergency case management is required for survival and stabilization of critical patients, followed by a shifting to the relevant medical department for further care. However, for the seriously ill critical patients, i.e., when the care provided by the Emergency Department (ED) of the hospital is not enough to enable transfer, death may occur while treatment in the emergency department. This aspect of emergency management is often overlooked, and very few researcher and government is really serious regarding who dies in the ED. Aim and ObjectiveThe aim of my study was to determine the total Mortality occurring in India from 1st January 2019 to 31st May 2021(limitation here due to data availability is limited from accredited source) of emergency department admissions of public and private health facilities. The objective is to find out if there is increase or decrease in mortality of emergency department admissions during the covid-19 pandemic era by comparing average mortality of ED per month of public, private, rural, urban health facilities before the pandemic from 1st and 2nd year of pandemic i.e. 2020 and 2021 respectively MethodsThis research study is a cross sectional retrospective analysis of the mortality occurring at the emergency department of public and private, rural, urban hospitals from 1st January 2019 to May31st 2021 with aim to find out impact of covid-19. Electronic patient records from HMIS (health management information system) of MoHFW (ministry of health and family welfare) , Government of India is collected, observed, analyzed, compared for all patients deaths occurring at Emergency Department (ED) of public and private, rural, urban health facilities (n = 452102) during the period January 2019 to May 2021. ResultsThe study results found that largest total number of death occurred in the ED during may 2021 whereas the least number of deaths occurred in February 2019 (limitation is data availability up to May 2021 from accredited sources). During the first year of the pandemic, average mortality per month (Jan2020-Dec2020) in the emergency department (ED) of rural, urban, public and private hospitals in India was 16067per month whereas before the pandemic it was 12542 per month while during second year of pandemic i.e. 2021 the average mortality increased to 21758 per month (up to May 2021).DiscussionRecently a new strain omicron has again disrupted the normal life and lockdown and other measures are being implemented by different countries to save lives. The mortality at ED are having various etiologies, clinical severity at time of admission has a direct correlation with mortality, which requires the necessity of advanced triage system. There exists a lack of proper knowledge and advanced directives in the beginning i.e. December 2019 of the covid-19 pandemic era.Conclusions Due to novel disease majority of clinicians have challenging situation as well as Emergency Medicine (EM) teams faced a sudden increase in the number of cases with limited resources. Furthermore, a lack of proper knowledge and directives may have hindered access to proper care, as witnessed in many part of the world and available in various literatures. The authors hope that this study will help global researchers as well as policy makers to promote further research and discussion into preparation methods for such pandemics to reduce patient’s risk of death in the ED. KeywordsEmergency department, Death, Covid-19, Pandemic, Health facilities,

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-51
Yuli Mardi

Background: Medical records can be created manually or electronically. In the world of health, the development of information and communication technology is currently affecting health care services as a whole, including the implementation of electronic medical records. The application of electronic medical records must go through a careful planning stage, this is because electronic medical records involve many parties in health facilities and and require a lot of costs. For this reason, a comprehensive study of electronic medical records is needed. One way is to conduct a literature study of several articles related to the electronic medical record.Methods: In conducting this research, the literature review method was used, where the search for articles was not carried out systematically, but the scientific journal articles reviewed were selected by the researcher on one research topic, and selected based on the knowledge and experience possessed by the researcher (traditional review).Results: In this study, 7 articles were reviewed related to electronic medical records. There are some similarities in terms of benefits or obstacles in the application of electronic medical records in health facilities. Among the benefits of electronic medical records are the efficiency of using paper/medical record files, efficiency in the use of space/storage media, time efficiency in searching data and distributing medical record data, efficiency of human resources in finding medical record files and being able to detect errors in data entry. While some of the common obstacles to implementing electronic medical records in health facilities are the unpreparedness of officers at health facilities, so it takes time for socialization and training of human resources, problems with the network, lack of IT resources at health facilities that specifically handle electronic medical records, high implementation costs. expensive (hardware software) and there is no legal umbrella.Conclusions: There is a need for comprehensive research using the semantic review method of articles related to electronic medical records, so that the results can be used as a reference for health facilities in implementing electronic medical records. Thus, it is hoped that the migration and implementation process from manual medical records to electronic medical records can be carried out as expected.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dereje Habte ◽  
Samuel Zemenfeskudus ◽  
Mulugeta Endale ◽  
Mohammed Zeidan ◽  
Daniel Getachew ◽  

Abstract Background Ethiopia Population-based HIV Impact Assessment findings showed that in Addis Ababa, only 65.2% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status. We present the enhanced HIV/AIDS data management and systematic monitoring experience in Addis Ababa City Administration Health Bureau (AACAHB). Methods AACAHB established a command-post with leadership and technical team members from the health bureau, 10 sub-city health offices, and non-governmental stakeholders. The command-post improved governance, standardized HIV program implementation, and established accountability mechanism. A web-based database was established at each health facility, sub-city, and AACAHB level. Performance was scored (green, ≥75%; yellow, 50–74%; red, < 50%). The command-post reviewed performance on weekly basis. A mentorship team provided a weekly site-level support at underperforming public and private health facilities. At facility level, quality of data on recording tools such as registers, and individual medical records were maintained through continued review, feedback mechanisms and regular consistency check of data. Percentage and 95% confidence interval were computed to compare the improvement in program performance over time. Results After 6 months of intervention period, the monthly New HIV case finding in 47 health facilities increased from 422 to 734 (1.7 times) and treatment initiation increased from 302 to 616 (2 times). After 6 months, the aggregate scoring for HIV testing at city level improved from yellow to green, HIV case finding improved from red to green, and treatment initiation improved from red to yellow. An increasing trend was noted in HIV positive case finding with statistically significant improvement from 43.4% [95% Confidence Interval: 40.23–46.59%] in May 2019 to 74.9% [95% Confidence Interval: 72.03–77.6%] in September 2019. Similarly, significant improvement was recorded for new HIV treatment from 30.9% [95% Confidence Interval: 28.01–33.94%] in May 2019 to 62.5% [95% Confidence Interval: 59.38–65.6%] in September 2019. Conclusions Regular data driven HIV program review was institutionalized at city, sub-city and health facility levels which further improved HIV program monitoring and performance. The performance of HIV case finding and treatment initiation improved significantly via using intensified monitoring, data driven performance review, targeted site-level support based on the gap, and standardized approaches.

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