inorganic nitrogen
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 106931
Yu-Cheng Liu ◽  
Yu-Chen Hu ◽  
I.-Ming Chu ◽  
Yu-Hong Wei ◽  
Shen-Long Tsai

Ramchandra Kumar ◽  
Amit Kumar Pradhan ◽  
Mainak Ghosh ◽  
Mahendra Singh ◽  
Kasturikasen Beura ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ubair Nisar ◽  
Daomin Peng ◽  
Yongtong Mu ◽  
Yu Sun

Biofloc technology (BFT) is gaining traction as a strategic aquaculture tool for boosting feed conversions, biosecurity, and wastewater recycling. The significant aspect of BFT is aquaculture with highest stocking density and minimal water exchange. It not only improves the water quality of a system by removing inorganic nitrogen from wastewater but also serves as a suitable feed supplement and probiotic source for cultured species. This technology is commonly used for shrimp and tilapia culture and can be used for both semi-intensive and intensive culture systems. Biofloc, when combined with formulated diets, forms a balanced food chain that improves growth performance. Nutrients in this system are continuously recycled and reused and form an efficient alternative system in aquaculture. In addition to the reduction in water exchange, it is also considered as a bio-security measure, since it prevents entry of disease from outside sources. Aquamimicry is an innovative concept that simulates natural estuarine conditions by developing copepods that act as supplementary nutrition especially for shrimp culture. The review highlights the process, significance, and development of BFT, its microbial interactions, nutritional value, transition from biofloc to copefloc, and concept of aquamimicry to sustainably improve aquaculture production.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Ruslan Shakhmatov ◽  
Shuhei Hashiguchi ◽  
Trofim C. Maximov ◽  
Atsuko Sugimoto

AbstractChanges in winter precipitation (snow) may greatly affect vegetation by altering hydrological and biochemical processes. To understand the effects of changing snow cover depth and melt timing on the taiga forest ecosystem, a snow manipulation experiment was conducted in December 2015 at the Spasskaya Pad experimental larch forest in Eastern Siberia, which is characterized by a continental dry climate with extreme cold winters and hot summers. Variables including soil temperature and moisture, oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of soil moisture and stem water, foliar nitrogen and carbon contents and their isotopes, phenology, and soil inorganic nitrogen were observed at snow removal (SNOW−), snow addition (SNOW+), and CONTROL plots. After snow manipulation, the soil temperature at the SNOW− plot decreased significantly compared to the CONTROL and SNOW+ plots. At SNOW− plot, snowmelt was earlier and soil temperature was higher than at other plots during spring because of low soil moisture caused by less snowmelt water. Despite the earlier snowmelt and higher soil temperature in the SNOW− plot in the early growing season, needle elongation was delayed. Leaf chemistry also differed between the CONTROL and SNOW− plots. The needle nitrogen content in the SNOW− plot was lower in the middle of July, whereas no difference was observed among the three plots in August. The soil inorganic nitrogen content of each plot corresponded to these results. The amount of soil ammonium was lower in the SNOW− plot than in the other plots at the end of July, however, once production started in August, the amount of soil ammonium in the three plots was comparable. Extremely low soil temperatures in winter and freeze–thaw cycles in spring and dry soil condition in spring and early summer at the SNOW− plot may have influenced the phenology and production of soil inorganic nitrogen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 19-27
Sumaiya Nusrat Chaitee ◽  
Rudra Protap Biswas ◽  
Md Imran Kabir

The organic content from urban wastewater is treated with various conventional processes efficiently. However, for biological treatment of secondary effluent containing excessive inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, microalgae can be used. In this study, algal strains have been collected from locally available natural blooms and cultured in a BG-11 medium. Spirulina sp., the blue-green algae, dominant over the other species within the natural bloom, is applied in ten different dosages (0.2-2.5 g/L) to the synthetic wastewater with a 3-day hydraulic retention time. The removal efficiency of nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate have been observed to be about 60%, 30%, and 54% respectively. The highest removal efficiency has been found at 2.5 g/L of microalgae dose. Linear forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms have been used for biosorption modeling, and both isotherms fit well with R2>60% and NRMSE<11% in all cases. Additionally, the separation factor and the adsorption intensity represent the favorability of the biosorption process. Journal of Engineering Science 12(3), 2021, 19-27

2022 ◽  
Khashiff K Miranda ◽  
Brooke L Weigel ◽  
Emily Fogarty ◽  
Iva A Veseli ◽  
Anne Giblin ◽  

Coastal marine phototrophs exhibit some of the highest rates of primary productivity in the world. They have been found to host a diverse set of microbes, many of which may impact the biology of their phototroph hosts through metabolisms that are unique to microbial taxa. Here we characterized the metabolic functions of phototroph-associated microbial communities using metagenomes collected from 2 species of kelp (Laminaria setchellii and Nereocystis luetkeana) and 3 marine angiosperms (Phyllospadix scouleri, P. serrulatus and Zostera marina), including the rhizomes of two surfgrass species (Phyllospadix spp.) and the seagrass Zostera marina, and the sediments surrounding P. scouleri and Z. marina. Using metagenomic sequencing, we describe 72 metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) that potentially benefit from being associated with macrophytes and may contribute to macrophyte fitness through their metabolic gene content. All host-associated metagenomes contained genes for the use of dissolved organic matter from hosts and vitamin (B1, B2, B7, B12) biosynthesis. Additionally, we found a range of nitrogen metabolism genes that transform dissolved inorganic nitrogen into forms that may be more available to the host. The rhizosphere of surfgrass and seagrass contained genes for anaerobic microbial metabolisms, including nifH genes associated with nitrogen fixation, despite residing in a well-mixed and oxygenated environment. The range of oxygen environments engineered by macrophytes likely explains the diversity of both oxidizing and reducing microbial metabolisms, and contributes to the functional capabilities of microbes and their influence on carbon and nitrogen cycling in nearshore ecosystems.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261714
Austin D. Gray ◽  
Emily Bernhardt

A variety of antibiotics are ubiquitous in all freshwater ecosystems that receive wastewater. A wide variety of antibiotics have been developed to kill problematic bacteria and fungi through targeted application, and their use has contributed significantly to public health and livestock management. Unfortunately, a substantial fraction of the antibiotics applied to humans, pets and livestock end up in wastewater, and ultimately many of these chemicals enter freshwater ecosystems. The effect of adding chemicals that are intentionally designed to kill microbes, on freshwater microbial communities remains poorly understood. There are reasons to be concerned, as microbes play an essential role in nutrient uptake, carbon fixation and denitrification in freshwater ecosystems. Chemicals that reduce or alter freshwater microbial communities might reduce their capacity to degrade the excess nutrients and organic matter that characterize wastewater. We performed a laboratory experiment in which we exposed microbial community from unexposed stream sediments to three commonly detected antibiotics found in urban wastewater and urban streams (sulfamethoxazole, danofloxacin, and erythromycin). We assessed how the form and concentration of inorganic nitrogen, microbial carbon, and nitrogen cycling processes changed in response to environmentally relevant doses (10 μg/L) of each of these antibiotics individually and in combination. We expected to find that all antibiotics suppressed rates of microbial mineralization and nitrogen transformations and we anticipated that this suppression of microbial activity would be greatest in the combined treatment. Contrary to our expectations we measured few significant changes in microbially mediated functions in response to our experimental antibiotic dosing. We found no difference in functional gene abundance of key nitrogen cycling genes nosZ, mcrA, nirK, and amoA genes, and we measured no treatment effects on NO3- uptake or N2O, N2, CH4, CO2 production over the course of our seven-day experiment. In the mixture treatment, we measured significant increases in NH4+ concentrations over the first 24 hours of the experiment, which were indistinguishable from controls within six hours. Our results suggest remarkable community resistance to pressure antibiotic exposure poses on naïve stream sediments.

2022 ◽  
Hai-Hong Huang ◽  
Chao-Yun Li ◽  
Yan-Ju Lei ◽  
Wei-Qi Kuang ◽  
Wan-Sheng Zou ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the bacterial composition and inferring function profiles in the biofloc system rearing Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL) at a low salinity condition. PL (~ stage 15) were stocked in four parallel tanks filled in water with a salinity of 5.0‰ at a density of 4000 individuals per m3 for a 28-days culture experiment, during which glucose was added as carbon source with a C:N of 20:1. At the end of experiment, water was sampled from each tank and pooled to extract microbial DNA for high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. Results showed that the bacterial community at 28 d was dominated by phyla of Proteobacteria (45.8%), Bacteroidetes (21.1%), Planctomycetes (13.5%), Chlamydiae (10.3%) and Firmicutes (6.8%). A proportion of 81% inferring KEGG functions of this bacterial community associated with metabolism. Among functions relating to nitrogen metabolism, 48.5% were involved in the conversion of ammonia to glutamate, but the proportion of those involved in transformation among ammonia, nitrite and nitrate was 18.0% in total, inferring higher protein-synthesis but lower inorganic nitrogen-transformation capacities of the bacterial community. At the same time (28 d), high levels of total nitrogen (231.3±6.0 mg L-1) and biofloc (127.0±63.0 mL L-1), but low concentrations of ammonia (0.04±0.01 mg L-1), nitrite (0.2±0.1 mg L-1) and nitrate (12.9±2.5 mg L-1) were observed. The results supply a novel insight for understanding the function of bacterial community in the biofloc system nursing L. vannamei PL at a low salinity.

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