internal migration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 95 ◽  
pp. 102576
Harry Pickard ◽  
Vincenzo Bove ◽  
Georgios Efthyvoulou

Tingyin Xiao ◽  
Michael Oppenheimer ◽  
Xiaogang He ◽  
Marina Mastrorillo

AbstractClimate variability and climate change influence human migration both directly and indirectly through a variety of channels that are controlled by individual and household socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological processes as well as public policies and network effects. Characterizing and predicting migration flows are thus extremely complex and challenging. Among the quantitative methods available for predicting such flows is the widely used gravity model that ignores the network autocorrelation among flows and thus may lead to biased estimation of the climate effects of interest. In this study, we use a network model, the additive and multiplicative effects model for network (AMEN), to investigate the effects of climate variability, migrant networks, and their interactions on South African internal migration. Our results indicate that prior migrant networks have a significant influence on migration and can modify the association between climate variability and migration flows. We also reveal an otherwise obscure difference in responses to these effects between migrants moving to urban and non-urban destinations. With different metrics, we discover diverse drought effects on these migrants; for example, the negative standardized precipitation index (SPI) with a timescale of 12 months affects the non-urban-oriented migrants’ destination choices more than the rainy season rainfall deficit or soil moisture do. Moreover, we find that socioeconomic factors such as the unemployment rate are more significant to urban-oriented migrants, while some unobserved factors, possibly including the abolition of apartheid policies, appear to be more important to non-urban-oriented migrants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Emeline Rougeaux ◽  
J. Jaime Miranda ◽  
Mary Fewtrell ◽  
Jonathan C. K. Wells

Abstract Background Peru has historically experienced high rural-to-urban migration. Despite large reductions in undernutrition, overweight is increasing. Elsewhere, internal migration has been associated with differences in children’s growth and nutritional health. We investigated how child growth and nutritional status in Peru varied over time and in association with maternal internal migration. Methods Using data from Demographic & Health Surveys from 1991 to 2017, we assessed trends in child growth (height-for-age [HAZ], weight-for-age [WAZ], weight-for-height [WHZ] z scores) and nutritional health (stunting, underweight, overweight) by maternal adult internal migration (urban [UNM] or rural non-migrant [RNM], or urban-urban [UUM], rural-urban [RUM], rural-rural [RRM], or urban-rural migrant [URM]). Using 2017 data, we ran regression analyses, adjusting for confounders, to investigate associations of maternal migration with child outcomes and the maternal and child double burden of malnutrition. We further stratified by timing of migration, child timing of birth and, for urban residents, type of area of residence. Results are given as adjusted predictive margins (mean z score or %) and associated regression p-values [p]. Results In 1991–2017, child growth improved, and undernutrition decreased, but large differences by maternal migration persisted. In 2017, within urban areas, being the child of a migrant woman was associated with lower WHZ (UUM = 0.6/RUM = 0.5 vs UNM = 0.7; p = 0.009 and p < 0.001 respectively) and overweight prevalence ((RUM 7% vs UNM = 11% [p = 0.002]). Results however varied both by child timing of birth (birth after migration meant greater overweight prevalence) and type of area of residence (better linear growth in children of migrants [vs non-migrants] in capital/large cities and towns but not small cities). In rural areas, compared to RNM, children of URM had higher HAZ (− 1.0 vs − 1.2; p < 0.001) and WAZ (− 0.3 vs − 0.4; p = 0.001) and lower stunting (14% vs 21%; [p < 0.001]). There were no differences by timing of birth in rural children, nor by time since migration across all children. The mother and child double burden of malnutrition was higher in rural than urban areas but no differences were found by maternal internal migration. Conclusions Migration creates a unique profile of child nutritional health that is not explained by maternal ethnic and early life factors, but which varies depending on the pathway of migration, the child timing of birth in relation to migration and, for urban dwellers, the size of the place of destination. Interventions to improve child nutritional health should take into consideration maternal health and migration history.

2022 ◽  
Karina Acosta

Although a sizable number of studies have been exploring the migration development nexus in international settings, there is still a reduced number on internal contexts in recent years. This research aims to estimate the causal effect of origin economic conditions on internal population migration using a time series of the Colombian states between 2012 and 2019. This analysis provides a macro perspective of associations and causation between population dynamics and development in the current changes observed using spatial interaction models. Likewise, it analyses the current portray of internal migration in Colombia (defined by five-years and one-year flows). The evidence shows that the migration hump depends on the scale at which it is analyzed. At an aggregated scale, initial economic conditions are negatively associated with migration until a threshold where this relationship is reversed. The opposite is observed in the rural migrants subsample.

2022 ◽  
pp. 187-207
Israel Barrutia Barreto ◽  
Elias Saturnino Toledo Espinoza ◽  
Sipriana Lila Toledo Espinoza ◽  
Renzo Antonio Seminario Córdova

The objective of this study was to explore the acculturation strategies present in the ethnic groups in the internal migration process in Peru, from the self-perception of social well-being and psychological acculturation, as conflict prevention factors. The study methodology was non-experimental and cross-sectional, comprising a non-probabilistic sample of 214 migrants of Quechua ethnic origin residing in Lima and Callao. The results indicated that just over half of the participants perceive themselves as integrated or assimilated to the host society. The results of the research show the prevalence of acculturation strategies linked to social welfare, where internal immigrants of Quechua origin and language seek integration into the environment that enables the performance of roles in the public and private spheres that facilitate adaptation processes and minimization of conflicts.

Xiaodong Zheng ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  
Xiangming Fang

Background: This study aimed to examine the association of internal migration experience with depressive symptoms among middle-aged and elderly Chinese, as well as explore possible mechanisms of the relationship. Methods: Participants were from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative sample of residents aged 45 years and older (n = 43,854). Survey data on depressive symptoms and internal migration experience were collected from biennial CHARLS surveys (CHARLS 2011/2013/2015) and a unique CHARLS life history survey in 2014, respectively. Multiple logistic regressions and the Karlson–Holm–Breen (KHB) method were employed in the statistical analyses. Results: The overall prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults was 34.6%. Internal migration experience was associated with higher risks of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02–1.12, p < 0.01), especially among females (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14, p < 0.05), middle-aged adults (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.06–1.19, p < 0.001), rural-to-urban migrants who had not obtained an urban hukou (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07–1.19, p < 0.001), and those who had low migration frequency and first migrated out at 35 years of age or older. Chronic disease (17.98%, p < 0.001), physical injury (7.04%, p < 0.001), medical expenditure (7.98%, p < 0.001), pension insurance (4.91%, p < 0.001), and parent–child interaction (4.45%, p < 0.01) were shown to mediate the association of internal migration experience with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This study indicates that there is a significant association between internal migration experience and high risks of depression onset later in life. It is suggested to reduce institutional barriers for migrants and implement evidence-based interventions to improve migrants’ mental health.

Vollan O. Ochieng ◽  
Razak M Gyasi ◽  
Blessing U Mberu

Alfred Agwanda Otieno ◽  
Mary Muyonga ◽  
Milton Adieri ◽  
George Odipo

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