economic conditions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hui Liao ◽  
Chaoyang Yan ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Jing Wang

BackgroundThe disability problem has become prominent with the acceleration of the global aging process. Individual disability is associated with economic conditions and contributes to family poverty. As disability will change over a long period of time and may even show distinct dynamic trends, we aimed to focus on activities of daily living (ADL) and classify functional disability trends. Moreover, we aimed to highlight and analyze the association between functional disability trends and economic conditions and explore the influencing factors.Materials and MethodsA total of 11,222 individuals who were 45 years old or older were included in four surveys conducted by the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. Samples were analyzed after excluding those with missing key variables. The latent class growth model was used to classify the ADL trends. Two binary logistic regressions were established to observe the association between the ADL trends and follow-up economic conditions or catastrophic health expenditure trends.ResultsADL trends of older adults were classified into improving (25.4%), stabilizing (57.0%), and weakening ADL (17.6%). ADL trend was associated with follow-up poverty (p = 0.002) and catastrophic health expenditure trends (p < 0.001). Compared with the improving ADL trend, the stabilizing ADL may have a negative influence on individuals' economic conditions (OR = 1.175, 95%CI = 1.060–1.303). However, a stabilizing ADL trend was less likely to bring about catastrophic health expenditures (OR = 0.746, 95%CI = 0.678–0.820) compared with an improving ADL trend.ConclusionThe improvement of functional disability would make the medical expense burden heavier but would still be beneficial for the prevention of poverty. A significant association was found between socioeconomic factors and poverty. Preventing the older adults from developing disability and illness, improving the compensation level of medical insurance, and optimizing the long-term care insurance and the primary healthcare system can potentially contribute to the prevention of poverty. Meanwhile, focusing on people who are poor at early stages, women, middle-aged, low-educated, and in rural areas is important.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 138
Khaoula Khemiri ◽  
Sihem Jebari ◽  
Naceur Mahdhi ◽  
Ines Saidi ◽  
Ronny Berndtsson ◽  

Increasing land use pressure is a primary force for degradation of agricultural areas. The drivers for these pressures are initiated by a series of interconnected processes. This study presents a novel methodology to analyze drivers of changing land use pressure and the effects on society and landscape. The focus was on characterizing these drivers and relate them to land use statistics obtained from geospatial data from the important semiarid Merguellil Wadi between 1976 and 2016. Cause-and-effect relationships between different drivers of land use change were analyzed using the DPSIR approach. Results show that during the 40-year period cultivated land increased and wetland areas decreased substantially. Drivers for change were pressure from economic development, cultivation practices, and hydro-agricultural techniques. This leads to stress on water and soil resulting in soil erosion, poverty increase, and rural exodus. We show that hydro-agricultural techniques adapted to the semiarid climate, allocation of land property rights, resource allocation, and improved marketing of agricultural products can help rural residents to diversify their economy, and thus better preserve the fragile semiarid landscape. Results of this study can be used to ensure sustainable management of water and soil resources in areas with similar climate and socio-economic conditions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030913252110651
Sarah Marie Hall

Austerity policies and austere socio-economic conditions in the UK have had acute consequences for everyday life and, interconnectedly, the political and structural regimes that impact upon the lives of women and marginalised groups. Feminist geographies have arguably been enlivened and reinvigorated by critical engagements with austerity, bringing to light everyday experiences, structural inequalities and multi-scalar socio-economic relations. With this paper I propose five areas of intervention for further research in this field: social reproduction, everyday epistemologies, intersectionality, voice and silence, and embodied fieldwork. To conclude, I argue for continuing feminist critique and analyses given the legacies and futures of austerity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 204-237
Isabel Edith Torres Zapata ◽  
Omar Vargas Orellana

It is difficult to find cases of technology-based Small and Medium Enterprises in developing countries, however Chile has some within the biotechnology sector. How has this been possible? As a consequence of the different public policies and structural economic conditions that allowed their emergence, especially in the 1990s. This study describes the historical conditions and how they have been able to create a sector within the Chilean economy. From the analysis of secondary data the emergence of this type of company within the country is described. This analysis shows the link between structural conditions and appropriate public policies, meaning that these companies did not emerge by chance. Understanding their development process is crucial to promote the creation of more such technology-based Small and Medium Enterprises, as they have many positive externalities and are more globally competitive.

2022 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 181-206
Lukáš Fasora

This text summarises the results of extensive research into the relationship between the state and universities in 1849–1939, i.e. between the so-called ‘Thun reform’ and the closure of Czech universities by the Nazis. The focus is on the state’s respect for the privileged position of universities and the monitoring of tensions arising from the clash between legislation and the universities’ day-to-day operations, resulting mainly from satisfying the economic needs of universities on the one hand, and the interpretation of the responsibility and discipline of their academic staff towards the state and society on the other. The research shows the advancing erosion of the so-called Prussian (Humboldt’s) concept of an autonomous national-oriented university and the difficult search for a democratic alternative in interwar Central Europe’s unstable political and economic conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Gendewa Tunas Rancak ◽  
Uzlifatul Azmiyati

PLTU Jeranjang, West Lombok Regency, is a power plant that uses low-calorie coal. The activities and all power generation activities, including the PLTU Jeranjang, have the potential to have an impact on the social and economic conditions of the community around the power plant location. More in-depth research is needed regarding the impact on social and economic conditions, especially in the Jeranjang area. The aims of this research are (1) to find out how big the social and economic impact of the operational activities of PLTU Jeranjang on the community around the area of PLTU Jeranjang. (2) As a reflection and reference in efforts to increase the national electrification ratio with its impact on environmental, social, economic, and cultural conditions. The method used is a qualitative method by applying questionnaires, interviews and field observations to collect data. While the research sample used purposive sampling by considering the selection of respondents, ease of access, cost and time of the study. This study resulted that the community experienced a decrease in income up to 79%, especially fishermen and farmers. However, the level of anxiety is relatively low because %URS only reached 56%. The health impact that is often experienced by the community throughout the year is Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (ARI). The magnitude of the disturbance in fishing activities is classified as having a sufficient impact because 71% of fisherman feel a change in the typology of fishing which has an impact on the economy. The amount of disturbance to fishing activities is quite adequate with an FAI value of 0.003391. The operational activities of the PLTU Jeranjang as a whole have an impact that is still included in the low category so that this impact can be minimized by optimizing the monitoring, control, treatment, and information disclosure between the PLTU Jeranjang and the community.

Owner ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 705-708
Hery Haryanto ◽  
Yuni Nuraeni ◽  
Martasya Martasya ◽  
M Mardin Zen

Income earned by an area in a certain time. The existence of income earned by an area at a certain time has an impact on economic conditions in the area. Bogor City is one of the regions in West Java Province with a fairly good economic movement in 2016-2020, it can be seen in terms of Regional Original Income (PAD) which decreased and increased from 2016-2020. This study will analyze the income received by the city of Bogor in 2016-2020, and will increase economic growth in the city. This study uses a quantitative method, where various data are taken from previous research and using data released by the Bogor City government in 2016-2020. This study found that Bogor City's income was quite good because it was able to increase PAD in 2019 and 2020. This result had an impact on Bogor City's economic growth which also increased. This study concludes that income and good economic development will have a good impact on a certain area for both infrastructure and non-infrastructure development.

Matloob Piracha ◽  
Massimiliano Tani ◽  
Zhiming Cheng ◽  
Ben Zhe Wang

AbstractWe analyse how immigrants’ level of social assimilation is related to their labour market outcomes. More precisely, we estimate the association between assimilation and employment, wages, underemployment, three measures of job satisfaction, overeducation and wages. Using Australian longitudinal data, we find that assimilation is strongly associated with employment and wages as well as a number of job satisfaction measures. We then split our data and repeat the analysis for before and after the financial crisis of 2008–2009. We find important differences in the way assimilation is associated with different measures of labour market outcomes under different economic conditions. Finally, we explore mechanisms that may underlie the results.

2022 ◽  
Jacopo Cerri ◽  
Chiara Sciandra ◽  
Tania Contardo ◽  
Sandro Bertolino

Invasive mosquitoes are an emerging ecological and sanitary issue. Many factors have been suggested as drivers or barriers to their control, still no study quantified their influence over mosquito management by local authorities, nor their interplay with local economic conditions.We assessed how multiple environmental, sanitary, and socio-economic factors affected the engagement of municipalities in Italy (n = 7,679) in actions against Aedes albopictus, an invasive mosquito affecting human health and well-being, between 2000 and 2020.Municipalities are more prone to manage A. albopictus if more urbanized, in lowlands, with long infestation periods and close to outbreaks of Chikungunya, for which A. albopictus is a competent vector. Moreover, these variables were more strongly associated with management in municipalities with a high median income, and thus more economic resources. Only 25.5% of Italian municipalities approved regulations for managing A. albopictus, and very few of them were in Southern Italy, the most deprived area of the country.Our findings indicate that local economic conditions moderate the effect of other drivers of mosquito control and ultimately can lead to better management of A. albopictus. Thus, to ensure social justice, existing policies for managing the impacts of invasive vectors should explicitly address territorial inequalities by providing policymakers with adequate economic means.

2022 ◽  
Karina Acosta

Although a sizable number of studies have been exploring the migration development nexus in international settings, there is still a reduced number on internal contexts in recent years. This research aims to estimate the causal effect of origin economic conditions on internal population migration using a time series of the Colombian states between 2012 and 2019. This analysis provides a macro perspective of associations and causation between population dynamics and development in the current changes observed using spatial interaction models. Likewise, it analyses the current portray of internal migration in Colombia (defined by five-years and one-year flows). The evidence shows that the migration hump depends on the scale at which it is analyzed. At an aggregated scale, initial economic conditions are negatively associated with migration until a threshold where this relationship is reversed. The opposite is observed in the rural migrants subsample.

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