An experimental study was carried out to identify the effect of angle of attack on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of square cylinders. The experiment was conducted at the Aeronautical and Wind Engineering Laboratory (AEROLAB), UTM Kuala Lumpur using a wind tunnel that was free from external wind conditions. A supporting structure was designed and fabricated to conduct this experiment. The importance of this support structure was to enable the rigid cylinder to suspend and vibrate freely upon excitation of wind speed. The results were analysed through the response of amplitude and frequency of the rigid cylinder over a velocity range of 0.5m/s to 4.0m/s. The results showed that for a square cylinder of ?=0°, vortex-induced vibration (VIV) occurred at low reduced velocity (UR) in range of 5 ? UR ? 10 and galloping occurred at higher reduced velocity which started at UR=15. A tranquil zone was found between VIV and galloping in the reduced velocity range of 10 ? UR ? 15. As for ?=22.5° and 45°, only VIV response was found at low reduced velocity in range of 4? UR ? 9.
ABSTRAK: Satu kajian eksperimentasi telah dilakukan bagi mengenal pasti pengaruh sudut serangan oleh getaran cetusan-aliran (FIV) dalam silinder persegi. Eksperimen ini dijalankan di Makmal Kejuruteraan Aeronautika dan Angin (AEROLAB), UTM Kuala Lumpur dengan menggunakan terowong angin yang bebas dari pengaruh angin luar. Struktur sokongan telah direka dan difabrikasi bagi tujuan eksperimen ini. Ini penting bagi membolehkan silinder pegun tergantung dan bergetar dengan bebas semasa ujian kelajuan angin. Dapatan kajian dianalisis melalui tindak balas amplitud dan frekuensi silinder pegun pada kadar halaju 0.5m/s sehingga 4.0m/s. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa bagi silinder persegi ? = 0 °, getaran pengaruh-vorteks (VIV) berlaku pada halaju rendah (UR) dalam julat 5 ? UR ? 10 dan getaran lebih teruk telah ketara berlaku pada kadar halaju berkurang iaitu bermula pada UR = 15. Zon tenang dijumpai antara VIV dan getaran teruk pada kadar halaju berkurang 10 ? UR ? 15. Adapun pada ? = 22.5° dan 45°, hanya tindak balas VIV dijumpai pada halaju rendah dalam kadar 4? UR ? 9.
Problems. When designing bolted joints (BJ), it is necessary, in particular, to carry out their verification calculations for strength. At the same time, it is desirable to use express analysis: calculations by simple formulas of sufficient accuracy. For BJ of plates made of layered polymer composite materials (PCM), the problem has not yet been solved.
The aim of the study. The task is to test the accuracy of three known formulas for quick calculation of the value of the stress concentration factor (SCF) in zone of contact of bolt-hole with a rigid cylinder (bolt). The study was carried out on contrasting examples of materials and schemes of reinforcement of plates made of PСM, taking into account possible clearance between bolt and hole in the real range: from zero to 1% of diameter.
Methodology of implementation. Numerical calculations were made using the finite element method (contact problem) for the BJ of plates made of layered PCM. 3D orthotropy of each monolayer was provided. Three simple formulas of express analysis were tested. The results are summarized in the tables and many illustrations are given.
Research results. Numerical estimates of depending of the SCF in zone of the surface of the bolt-hole from considered factors are obtained. The factors are the material characteristics, the schemes of reinforcement of plates made of layered PСM and the values of the clearance between bolt and hole in the plates, as well as the accuracy of the considered formulas.
Conclusions. Changing the material and the scheme of reinforcement of plate made of layered PСM leads to a significant change in the values of maximum stresses and SCF in zone of the bolt-loaded hole in the weakened by hole cross section of a plate. Considered formulas of the express analysis have insufficient accuracy for consideration of contrast properties of materials and schemes of reinforcement of a plate. Changing size of clearance between bolt and hole in the range from zero to 1% of the diameter leads to relatively small changes in SCF: up to 10% maximum. Additional research is needed.
Active noise control can be used to reduce the scattered sound of a reflecting object to make it invisible to incident acoustic waves. For the multi-zone active noise control of scattered sound from an infinite rigid cylinder, an active control strategy is proposed that combines the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm with constraint points and regularized least squares (RLS) algorithm. The proposed control strategy is used to promote control performance through optimizing the secondary loudspeaker placement of an active noise control system. Compared with the RLS algorithm employing the uniformly placed loudspeakers and the traditional LASSO algorithm, the proposed strategy has better reduction performance both in the forward-scattered and backward-scattered sound target areas, and there is less sound amplification in the far field. From 400 Hz–1100 Hz, the proposed strategy provides a 5 dB–16 dB reduction performance advantage in the target area compared to the RLS algorithm employing uniformly placed loudspeakers.