numerical model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ziv Sade ◽  
Shahar Hegyi ◽  
Itay Halevy

Equilibration times of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) depend on conversion reactions between CO2(aq) and the dissociation products of carbonic acid [S = (H2CO3) + (HCO3−) + (CO32−)]. Here, we develop analytical equations and a numerical model to calculate chemical equilibration times of DIC during pH transitions in buffered and unbuffered solutions. We approximate the equilibration degree of the DIC reservoir by the smaller of the CO2(aq) and S pools at the new pH, since the smaller pool is always farther from equilibrium during the chemical evolution. Both the amount of DIC converted and the rate of conversion differ between a pH increase and decrease, leading to distinct equilibration times for these general cases. Alkalinity perturbations in unbuffered solutions initially drive pH overshoots (increase or decrease) relative to the new equilibrium pH. The increased rates of DIC conversion associated with the pH overshoot yield shorter equilibration times compared to buffered solutions. Salinity has opposing effects on buffered and unbuffered solutions, decreasing and increasing equilibration times, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yuqi Tang ◽  
Zhantong Mao ◽  
Anni Li ◽  
Lina Zhai

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to study the heat transfer effect of copper sensor and skin simulant on skin.Design/methodology/approachFor the sensor, the physical and mathematical models of the thermal sensors were used to obtain the definite conditions in the heat transfer process of the sensor, and the heat transfer models of the two sensors were developed and solved respectively by using ANSYS WORKBENCH 19.0 software. The simulation results were compared with the experimental test results. For the skin, the numerical model of the skin model was developed and calculated. Finally, the heat transfer simulation performance of the two sensors was analyzed.FindingsIt is concluded that the copper sensor is more stable than the skin simulant, but the material and structure of the skin simulant is more suitable for skin simulation. The skin simulant better simulates the skin heat transfer. For all the factors in the model, the thermal properties of the material and the heat flux level are the key factors. The convective heat transfer coefficient, radiation heat transfer rate and the initial temperature have little influence on the results, which can be ignored.Research limitations/implicationsThe results show that there are still some differences between the experimental and numerical simulation values of the skin simulant. In the future, the thermal parameters of skin simulant and the influence of the thermocouple adhesion should be further examined during the calibration process.Practical implicationsThe results suggest that the skin simulant needs to be further calibrated, especially for the thermal properties. The copper sensor on the flame manikin can be replaced by the skin simulant with higher accuracy, which will be helpful to improve the accuracy of performance evaluation of thermal protective clothing.Social implicationsThe application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology can help to analyze the heat transfer simulation mechanism of thermal sensor, explore the influence of thermal performance of thermal sensor on skin simulation, provide basis for the development of thermal sensor and improve the application system of thermal sensor. Based on the current research status, this paper studies the internal heat transfer of the sensor through the numerical modeling of the copper sensor and skin simulant, so as to analyze the effect of the sensor simulating skin and the reasons for the difference.Originality/valueIn this paper, the sensor itself is numerically modeled and the heat transfer inside the sensor is studied.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322210747
Germán Nanclares ◽  
Daniel Ambrosini ◽  
Oscar Curadelli

The evolution of seismic design and calculation criteria for highway bridges has a direct influence on their structural behavior. This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic analysis using a detailed 3D finite element model of an existing bridge, with different design criteria for the column transverse reinforcement, according to code requirements of different times. The numerical model is able to simulate both the collapse of the structure and the generation of damage in its elements when subjected to extreme seismic actions. Through the numerical model, it is possible to represent the cyclic behavior of the concrete, and to evaluate the influence of the transverse reinforcement assigned to the column on the overall response of the bridge. The formation of plastic hinges is verified, as well as the identification of different collapse mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 779
Carlos Aurelio Andreucci ◽  
Abdullah Alshaya ◽  
Elza M. M. Fonseca ◽  
Renato N. Jorge

A new biomechanism, Bioactive Kinetic Screw (BKS) for screws and bone implants created by the first author, is presented using a bone dental implant screw, in which the bone particles, blood, cells, and protein molecules removed during bone drilling are used as a homogeneous autogenous transplant in the same implant site, aiming to obtain primary and secondary bone stability, simplifying the surgical procedure, and improving the healing process. The new BKS is based on complex geometry. In this work, we describe the growth factor (GF) delivery properties and the in situ optimization of the use of the GF in the fixation of bone screws through a dental implant. To describe the drilling process, an explicit dynamic numerical model was created, where the results show a significant impact of the drilling process on the bone material. The simulation demonstrates that the space occupied by the screw causes stress and deformation in the bone during the perforation and removal of the particulate bone, resulting in the accumulation of material removed within the implant screw, filling the limit hole of the drill grooves present on the new BKS.

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