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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260809
Beate Sander ◽  
Yaron Finkelstein ◽  
Hong Lu ◽  
Chenthila Nagamuthu ◽  
Erin Graves ◽  

Objective To determine 1-year attributable healthcare costs of bronchiolitis. Methods Using a population-based matched cohort and incidence-based cost analysis approach, we identified infants <12 months old diagnosed in an emergency department (ED) or hospitalized with bronchiolitis between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2014. We propensity-score matched infants with and without bronchiolitis on sex, age, income quintile, rurality, co-morbidities, gestational weeks, small-for-gestational-age status and pre-index healthcare cost deciles. We calculated mean attributable 1-year costs using a generalized estimating equation model and stratified costs by age, sex, income quintile, rurality, co-morbidities and prematurity. Results We identified 58,375 infants with bronchiolitis (mean age 154±95 days, 61.3% males, 4.2% with comorbidities). Total 1-year mean bronchiolitis-attributable costs were $4,313 per patient (95%CI: $4,148–4,477), with $2,847 (95%CI: $2,712–2,982) spent on hospitalizations, $610 (95%CI: $594–627) on physician services, $562 (95%CI: $556–567)] on ED visits, $259 (95%CI: $222–297) on other healthcare costs and $35 ($27–42) on drugs. Attributable bronchiolitis costs were $2,765 (95%CI: $2735–2,794) vs $111 (95%CI: $102–121) in the initial 10 days post index date, $4,695 (95%CI: $4,589–4,800) vs $910 (95%CI: $847–973) in the initial 180 days and $1,158 (95%CI: $1,104–1213) vs $639 (95%CI: $599–679) during days 181–360. Mean 1-year bronchiolitis costs were higher in infants <3 months old [$5,536 (95%CI: $5,216–5,856)], those with co-morbidities [$17,530 (95%CI: $14,683–20,377)] and with low birthweight [$5,509 (95%CI: $4,927–6,091)]. Conclusions Compared to no bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis incurs five-time and two-time higher healthcare costs within the initial and subsequent six-months, respectively. Most expenses occur in the initial 10 days and relate to hospitalization.

Victor P. Lato ◽  
Elleine Rose A. Oliva

The purpose of this study, to determine the most suitable model for motivation in language learning. It aims to ensure the significant relationship between the exogenous variable: writing strategy, study habits, classroom climate, and the endogenous variable in language learning motivation. In addition, non-experimental correlational research design and structural equation models to determine the most appropriate motivational model in motivation language learning. However, a stratified random sampling technique to select 436 participants from ninth-grade students from secondary public schools in Region XI. The following statistic used: mean, Pearson r, regression, and structural equation model (SEM). The exogenous variables have a significant correlation with endogenous variables that the fifth model adapted result of the study. In connection with, exogenous variables acquired a high descriptive level. The writing strategy includes planning, implementation, and revision; study habits include: time management, learning environment, forecasting skills and preparation, note-taking, reading skills, writing skills, and language skills; classroom climate includes: teacher support, student independence, interaction, and collaboration in class; and the endogenous variable acquired a high descriptive level of motivation in language learning that included: instrumental and integrative motivation. KEYWORDS: education, writing strategies, study habits, classroom climate, language learning motivation, structural model, Philippines

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke ◽  
Ahmed Farouk Kineber ◽  
Maged Abdel-Tawab ◽  
Abdurrahman Salihu Abubakar ◽  
Ibraheem Albukhari ◽  

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of cloud computing (CC) and the challenges that contribute to more successful projects with a major sustainable construction development.Design/methodology/approachThe previous studies provided information on CC implementation barriers, which were then evaluated by 104 construction stakeholders through a questionnaire survey. As a result, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) approach was used to investigate these barriers. Furthermore, a partial least square structural equation model was used to build a model of these barriers (PLS-SEM).FindingsThe EFA results revealed that the above-noted factors are in a close relation with three key components, i.e. social, economic and communication. In addition, the proposed model results found the social barrier a key challenge to the implementation of CC.Research limitations/implicationsThe results from this study can help decision-makers to improve the approaches regarding data fragmentation that has great effects on the execution of all construction projects. The focus of the paper is to enhance the data fragmentation processes. In addition, the results would be useful to strengthen the sustainability of existing construction projects by enhancing the implementation of CC.Originality/valueThe novelty of this research work will provide a solid foundation for critically assessing and appreciating the different barriers affecting the adoption of CC.

Johanna Sophie Lubasch ◽  
Mona Voigt-Barbarowicz ◽  
Nicole Ernstmann ◽  
Christoph Kowalski ◽  
Anna Levke Brütt ◽  

Health literacy-sensitive communication has been found to be an important dimension of organizational health literacy measured from the patients’ perspective. Little is known about the role of health literacy-sensitive communication in complex care structures. Therefore, our aim was to assess which hospital characteristics (in terms of process organization) and patient characteristics (e.g., age, chronic illness, etc.) contribute to better perceptions of health literacy-sensitive communication, as well as whether better health literacy-sensitive communication is associated with better patient reported experiences. Data were derived from a patient survey conducted in 2020 in four clinical departments of a university hospital in Germany. Health literacy-sensitive communication was measured with the HL-COM scale. Data from 209 patients (response rate 24.2%) were analyzed with a structural equation model (SEM). Results revealed that no patient characteristics were associated with HL-COM scores. Better process organization as perceived by patients was associated with significantly better HL-COM scores, and, in turn, better HL-COM scores were associated with more patient-reported social support provided by physicians and nurses as well as fewer unmet information needs. Investing into good process organization might improve health literacy-sensitive communication, which in turn has the potential to foster the patient–provider relationship as well as to reduce unmet information needs of patients.

Jimmy Yosal ◽  
P.M. Budi Haryono ◽  
Soegeng Wahyoedi

This research is an explanatory research by applying the survey method, in which proposed to examine the effect of integrated marketing communication and service quality on purchase decisions mediated by consumer satisfaction at Maybank Finance, Java Area, Non Jabodetabek in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era. The sample of this research is 100 consumers who are new debtors who will do financing at Maybank Finance in the Java Region of the Non-jabodetabek area. Data obtained through questionnaires, that was spreaded to respondents who were selected by purposive sampling method. The analytical technique used in this study is the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using the SMARTPls 3 program. The results reveal that the direct influence of integrated marketing communication and service quality on consumer purchase decisions is no significant. The direct effect of consumer satisfaction on consumer purchase decisions is positive and significant, in which the path coefficient of 0.536 with a p value of 0.000. The results of the mediation effect test show that consumer satisfaction does not play a role in mediating the effect of integrated marketing communications on consumer purchase decisions. Consumer satisfaction plays a role in mediating the effect of service quality on purchase decisions.

Aula Ahmad Hafidh ◽  
Fuadah Johari ◽  
Maimun Sholeh ◽  
Eko Suprayitno ◽  
Ngadiyono Ngadiyono

This study aims to examine the model adopted based on Muslim consumer perceptions of taxes through the zakat system. This research uses three stages of comprehensive technical analysis through demographic depiction of respondents based on distribution frequently, then tests the adopted factors using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to select and determine the number of factors and related items. In the final stage, data analysis is carried out in the form of the modeling technique using Structure Equations Model (SEM) to test the quality of the models and hypotheses produced. 152 respondents were collected who were sampled in this study, the majority of respondents are 77 Malaysian citizens  and 75  Indonesian residents. At the testing stage of the model through the Structural Equation Model (SEM), based on the results of the formation factors in the test, it can be said that only the knowledge about tax, religious, and service variables have an impact on perception toward through zakat system positively and significantly, but through testing the serviceability of a model results in a determinant coefficient of 0.668, which it was relatively strong to explaining independent variable.

2021 ◽  
Darul Wiyono ◽  
Vip Paramarta ◽  

High company performance can be achieved if all elements in the company are well integrated, and are able to carry out their roles according to the needs of employees. The purpose of this study is to analyze and determine (1) competence, (2) work motivation, (3) employee performance, and (4) the effect of competence and work motivation on employee performance. This type of research is descriptive and verification using explanatory survey research methods, and to test the hypotheses of this research will be analyzed using a structural equation model (Structural Equation Model, SEM) with the Partial Least Square (PLS) alternative method using SmartPLS 3.0 software. The results of testing the first hypothesis show that there is a significant correlation between competence and work motivation at the Ariyanti Education Foundation. The results of the second hypothesis show that competence has a positive and significant effect on employee performance at the Ariyanti Education Foundation. The third hypothesis shows that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee performance at the Ariyanti Education Foundation. The fourth hypothesis shows that competence and work motivation together have a positive and significant effect on employee performance at the Ariyanti Education Foundation. So it is clear that competence, work motivation and employee performance are interrelated. This must be considered because there is a mutually influencing relationship between the three. So that the development of competence and good work motivation will be able to improve the performance of these employees.

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