calcium carbonate
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Guntur ◽  
O.M. Luthfi ◽  
M. A. Asadi

Abstract Crustose coralline algae (Corallinophycideae) are red algae that produced calcium carbonate and are well recognized as foundation species in the epipelagic zone of the marine ecosystem. These algae induced settlement juvenile of coral by released chemical cues from bacterial communities on the surface of their colonies. Their extracellular calcium carbonate also can stabilize reef structure that influencing many invertebrate attaches and growth in the seabed. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) have obtained attention because of their distribution and health compromise to increasing seawater temperature, ocean acidification, and pollutant. As a cryptic species in the ecosystem, the presence of CCA recruit sometimes doesn’t have attention, especially on their capability to occupy the empty space. This study aimed to document coverage and number of CCA recruit in two different recruitment tile’s material. The highest CCA percentage of the cover was showed inside surface than others surface in all stations. Light intensity and low sedimentation were suggested as a key factor of success of high coverage. Overall, station higher CCA recruits have shown from Tiga Warna. Low sedimentation and protection from aerial exposure became the main reason for it. No significant difference number of CCA recruits between marble and sandstone in this study. Successful CCA recruitment in this study can give a wide picture that natural recruitment of coral and other reef biodiversity in Southern Malang might be will succeed because of the abundance of coralline algae that support their life history stage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 100061
Fabiane S. Serpa ◽  
Gabriela M. Silva ◽  
Lucas F.L. Freitas ◽  
Elvio B. Melo Filho ◽  
Jailton F. Nascimento ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 423 ◽  
pp. 127137
Detian Dou ◽  
Donglai Wei ◽  
Xin Guan ◽  
Zhenjiang Liang ◽  
Lihong Lan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaotong Yang ◽  
Haomin Sui ◽  
Hongshan Liang ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Bin Li

The gel properties of sodium alginate (SA) have been revealed to be strongly correlated with its ratio of D-mannuronate to L-guluronate (M/G ratio). Herein, we focused on SA with different M/G ratios to conduct an in-depth study on the effect of the M/G ratio difference on physicochemical stability and calcium release behavior of the Pickering emulsion stabilized by calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The oil phase was added to the aqueous phase, prepared by SA with different M/G ratios (2.23, 0.89, and 0.56) and CaCO3, for one-step shearing to obtain the E1, E2, and E3 emulsions, respectively. The results of the particle size, microstructure, long-term stability, rheological, and microrheological properties of the emulsions showed that the E3 emulsion, prepared by SA with a smaller M/G ratio, had a smaller particle size and has remained in a flow condition during the long-term storage, while the E1 and E2 emulsions had a gelation behavior and a stronger viscoelasticity. Moreover, the emulsion, as a liquid calcium supplement, is not only convenient for oral intake while meeting the calcium needs of the body, but also controls the release of Ca2+. The calcium release of the emulsions in a simulated gastric environment demonstrated that the calcium release ratio increased with the decrease of SA concentration, with the increase of M/G ratio, and with the decrease of oil phase volume.

Vanessa Schmitt ◽  
Laura Derenbach ◽  
Katrin Ochsenreither

l-Malic acid is a C4-dicarboxylic acid and a potential key building block for a bio-based economy. At present, malic acid is synthesized petrochemically and its major market is the food and beverages industry. In future, malic acid might also serve as a building block for biopolymers or even replace the commodity chemical maleic anhydride. For a sustainable production of l-malic acid from renewable resources, the microbial synthesis by the mold Aspergillus oryzae is one possible route. As CO2 fixation is involved in the biosynthesis, high yields are possible, and at the same time greenhouse gases can be reduced. In order to enhance the production potential of the wild-type strain Aspergillus oryzae DSM 1863, process characteristics were studied in shake flasks, comparing batch, fed-batch, and repeated-batch cultivations. In the batch process, a prolonged cultivation time led to malic acid consumption. Keeping carbon source concentration on a high level by pulsed feeding could prolong cell viability and cultivation time, however, did not result in significant higher product levels. In contrast, continuous malic acid production could be achieved over six exchange cycles and a total fermentation time of 19 days in repeated-batch cultivations. Up to 178 g/L l-malic acid was produced. The maximum productivity (0.90 ± 0.05 g/L/h) achieved in the repeated-batch cultivation had more than doubled than that achieved in the batch process and also the average productivity (0.42 ± 0.03 g/L/h for five exchange cycles and 16 days) was increased considerably. Further repeated-batch experiments confirmed a positive effect of regular calcium carbonate additions on pH stability and malic acid synthesis. Besides calcium carbonate, nitrogen supplementation proved to be essential for the prolonged malic acid production in repeated-batch. As prolonged malic acid production was only observed in cultivations with product removal, product inhibition seems to be the major limiting factor for malic acid production by the wild-type strain. This study provides a systematic comparison of different process strategies under consideration of major influencing factors and thereby delivers important insights into natural l-malic acid production.

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