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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhang Juan ◽  
Zhang Qing ◽  
Liang Yongping ◽  
Liyuan Qian ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
...  

Background: Docetaxel is an important chemotherapy-agent for breast cancer treatment. One of its side-effects is weight gain, which increases the all-cause mortality rate. Considering gut microbiota is one important factor for weight regulation, we hypothesized that probiotics could be potentially used to reduce the docetaxel-related weight gain in breast cancer patients.Methods: From 10/8/2018 to 10/17/2019, 100 breast cancer (Stage I-III) patients underwent four cycles of docetaxel-based chemotherapy were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Enterococcus faecalis) or placebo (supplementary material of the probiotics capsule) treatment for 84 days with three capsules per time, twice/day. The primary outcome: the changes in body weight and body-fat percentage of the patients were measured by a designated physician using a fat analyzer, and the secondary outcomes: the fasting insulin, plasma glucose, and lipids were directly obtained from the Hospital Information System (HIS); The metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); The fecal microbiome was analyzed using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. All indicators were measured 1 day before the first cycle of docetaxel-based chemotherapy and 21 days after the last cycle of docetaxel-based chemotherapy.Results: Compared with the placebo group, the probiotic group showed significantly smaller changes in body weight (Mean [SD] 0.77 [2.58] vs. 2.70 [3.08], P = 0.03), body-fat percentage (Mean [SD] 0.04 [1.14] vs. 3.86 [11.09], P = 0.02), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (Mean [SD]−0.05[0.68] vs. 0.39 [0.58], P = 0.002). Moreover, five of the 340 detected plasma metabolites showed significant differences between the two groups. The change of biliverdin dihydrochloride (B = −0.724, P = 0.02) was inverse correlated with weight gain. One strain of the phylum and three strains of the genus were detected to be significantly different between the two groups. Also, the changes of Bacteroides (B = −0.917, P < 0.001) and Anaerostipes (B = −0.894, P < 0.001) were inverse correlated with the change of LDL.Conclusions: Probiotics supplement during docetaxel-based chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment may help to reduce the increase in body weight, body-fat percentage, plasma LDL, and minimize the metabolic changes and gut dysbacteriosis.Clinical Trial Registration:http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=24294, ChiCTR-INQ-17014181.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiejie Tao ◽  
Feiling Lou ◽  
Yuntao Liu

Introduction: Accumulating evidence had demonstrated that females had a higher risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) than males, but the mechanism was still unknown. Vitamin D was found to play an essential role in DVT, and gender may influence the serum vitamin D levels. This study aimed to explore whether vitamin D played a role in the gender difference in DVT.Materials and Methods: A total of 444 patients with acute stroke were recruited, which were divided into the DVT group (n = 222) and the non-DVT group (n = 222). Serum vitamin D levels were measured after admission and were split into three categories, including deficiency (<50 nmol/L), insufficiency (52.5–72.5 nmol/L), and sufficiency (more than 75 nmol/L). Hierarchical regression analysis was adopted to analyze the relationship between gender and DVT, controlling the confounding factors.Results: Females showed a higher proportion of DVT than males (60.7 vs. 42.5%, p < 0.001), and lower serum vitamin D levels than males (53.44 ± 16.45 vs. 69.43 ± 23.14, p < 0.001). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were lower in the DVT group than in the non-DVT group (59.44 ± 19.61 vs. 66.24 ± 23.86, p < 0.001). Besides, the DVT group showed a lower proportion of vitamin D sufficiency than the non-DVT group (21.2 vs. 32.9%, p < 0.05). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that females had 2.083-fold (p < 0.001, unadjusted model) and 1.413-fold (p = 0.155, adjusted model) risk to develop DVT. In addition, the sufficiency status of vitamin D showed an independent protective effect on DVT (unadjusted model OR, 0.504, p = 0.004; adjusted model OR, 0.686, p = 0.011).Conclusion: Females had a higher risk of DVT than males, and vitamin D may play an essential role in this relationship. Further studies are needed to explore whether vitamin D supplementation could reduce DVT risk in stroke patients, especially females.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi-Zhen Huang ◽  
Zheng Jin ◽  
Zhe-Ming Wang ◽  
Li-Bo Qi ◽  
Shuang Song ◽  
...  

Oral diseases have received considerable attention worldwide as one of the major global public health problems. The development of oral diseases is influenced by socioeconomic, physiological, traumatic, biological, dietary and hygienic practices factors. Currently, the main prevention strategy for oral diseases is to inhibit the growth of biofilm-producing plaque bacteria. Tooth brushing is the most common method of cleaning plaque, aided by mouthwash and sugar-free chewing gum in the daily routine. As the global nutraceutical market grows, marine bioactive compounds are becoming increasingly popular among consumers for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, to date, few systematic summaries and studies on the application of marine bioactive compounds in oral health exist. This review provides a comprehensive overview of different marine-sourced bioactive compounds and their health benefits in dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, halitosis, oral cancer, and their potential use as functional food ingredients for oral health. In addition, limitations and challenges of the application of these active ingredients are discussed and some observations on current work and future trends are presented in the conclusion section.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jian Zhong ◽  
Enrique Barrajón-Catalán ◽  
Jose Manuel Lorenzo ◽  
Jun Lu ◽  
Brijesh K. Tiwari
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jia-yue Xia ◽  
Jun-hui Yu ◽  
Deng-feng Xu ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Hui Xia ◽  
...  

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to be associated with metabolic disorders, particularly abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Dietary food choices may have profound effects on blood lipids. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of peanuts and tree nuts intake on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: According to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines, we performed a systematic search of randomized controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews published in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library, from inception through June 2021. Studies in populations with type 2 diabetes, which compare nuts or peanuts to a controlled-diet group were included. We used the mean difference with 95% CIs to present estimates for continuous outcomes from individual studies. In addition, we used the GRADEpro tool to evaluate the overall quality of evidence.Results: Sixteen studies involving 1,041 participants were eligible for this review. The results showed that peanuts and tree nuts supplementation did not induce significant changes in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference = −0.11; 95%CI: −0.25 – 0.03, p = 0.117) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (mean difference = 0.01; 95%CI: −0.01 – 0.04, p = 0.400) in patients with type 2 diabetics. In addition, we found that peanuts and tree nuts intake may cause a significantly reduction in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference = −0.14; 95%CI: −0.26 – −0.02, p = 0.024) and triglyceride (TG) (mean difference = −0.10; 95%CI: −0.17 – −0.02, p = 0.010). In the subgroup analysis, a significantly greater reduction in TC was observed in studies which duration was <12 weeks (mean difference = −0.22; 95%CI: −0.37 – −0.08, p = 0.002). The quality of the body of evidence was “moderate” for TC and TG, the quality of evidence for LDL-C and HDL-C were “low.”Conclusion: Our findings suggest that consuming peanuts and tree nuts might be beneficial to lower TC concentration and TG concentration in type 2 diabetics subjects. Furthermore, peanuts and tree nuts supplementation could be considered as a part of a healthy lifestyle in the management of blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes. Given some limits observed in the current studies, more well-designed trials are still needed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jian Li ◽  
Junmei Ma ◽  
Qiang Li ◽  
Sufang Fan ◽  
Lixin Fan ◽  
...  

The purpose of this research was to develop a simple, sensitive, and accurate method for simultaneous determination of 35 free amino acids using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Tea samples were extracted with boiling water bath, and then separated by XBridge BEH Amide column by gradient elution. The exact mass and MS/MS spectra of the target compound was detected under the TOF–MS and Information dependent acquisition (IDA)–MS/MS mode. The results demonstrated good linearity (R2 > 0.9980) in the range of 0.5–1,000 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.13–25.00 mg/kg and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.25–50.00 mg/kg. The recovery rate ranged from 70.1 to 105.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <11% (n = 6). This research provides a targeted strategy for developing an analysis method for amino acids in tea.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hayoung Choi ◽  
Jung Eun Yoo ◽  
Kyungdo Han ◽  
Wonsuk Choi ◽  
Sang Youl Rhee ◽  
...  

Although both diabetes mellitus (DM) and underweight are associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB), there are limited data evaluating TB risk while considering two factors simultaneously—body mass index (BMI) and DM. A retrospective cohort study was performed with 10,087,903 participants of the Korean National Health Screening Program in 2009. The cohort was followed up to the date of TB incidence, death, or until December 31, 2018. We compared the incidence and risk of TB according to BMI category and DM. During the 7.3-year follow-up duration, the incidence of TB was 0.92 per 1,000 person-years in the normal weight without DM, 2.26 in the normal weight with DM, 1.80 in the underweight without DM, and 5.35 in the underweight with DM. Compared to the normal weight without DM, the normal weight with DM, the underweight without DM, and the underweight with DM showed a 1.51-fold (95% CI, 1.46–1.57), a 2.21-fold (95% CI, 2.14–2.28), and a 3.24-fold (95% CI, 2.95–3.56) increased risk of TB, respectively. However, compared to the normal weight without DM, the severely obese without DM and those with DM showed a 0.37 (95% CI, 0.36–0.38) and a 0.42 (95% CI, 0.36–0.48)-fold decreased risk of TB, respectively. There was no significant joint effect of BMI and DM on the risk of incident TB in the overall population; a synergistic effect of underweight and DM was evident in participants <65 years of age, current smokers, and heavy drinkers. In conclusion, being underweight or DM individually increases the risk of incident TB. Based on our study results, a focused screening of incident TB in patients with DM may be beneficial.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yunyun Liu ◽  
Xuena Wang ◽  
Qing Zhang ◽  
Ge Meng ◽  
Li Liu ◽  
...  

Background: The relationship between dietary patterns and atherosclerosis is inconclusive. Usually, diets vary greatly among different regions due to cultural differences and lifestyles. Few studies to date based on a Chinese population have investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and the formation of atherosclerosis in carotid arteries. We aimed to investigate whether dietary patterns were related to carotid atherosclerosis among an adult population in Tianjin, China.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 2,346 participants aged 50 years or older (mean: 59.7 ± 6.29 years). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 81-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a common carotid artery intima-media thickness ≥1.0 mm or plaques, or a carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness ≥1.2 mm. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between dietary patterns and carotid atherosclerosis.Results: Three factors were determined: “health” dietary pattern (factor 1), “traditional Tianjin” dietary pattern (factor 2), and “sweets” dietary pattern (factor 3). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of carotid atherosclerosis for the increasing quartiles of the sweets dietary pattern scores in women were as follows: 1.00 (reference), 1.33 (0.91, 1.97), 1.21 (0.82, 1.79), 1.64 (1.08, 2.51) (p for trend <0.05). No significant difference was found between any dietary pattern and carotid atherosclerosis in men.Conclusion: Greater adherence to “sweets” dietary patterns was positively related to a higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in women aged 50 or older. No relationship was found between any dietary pattern and carotid atherosclerosis in men. Further prospective studies are warranted to test this finding in other populations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hongyun Lu ◽  
Shengliang Zhang ◽  
Jinling Wang ◽  
Qihe Chen

Recently, owing to well-controlled release, enhanced distribution and increased permeability, nanocarriers used for alternative drug and food-delivery strategies have received increasingly attentions. Nanocarriers have attracted a large amount of interest as potential carriers of various bioactive molecules for multiple applications. Drug and food-based delivery via polymeric-based nanocarriers and lipid-based nanocarriers has been widely investigated. Nanocarriers, especially liposomes, are more and more widely used in the area of novel nano-pharmaceutical or food-based design. Herein, we aimed to discuss the recent advancement of different surface-engineered nanocarriers type, along with cutting-edge applications for food and nanomedicine and highlight the alternative of phytochemical as nanocarrier. Additionally, safety concern of nanocarriers was also highlighted.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
David S. Seigler ◽  
J. Brent Friesen ◽  
Jonathan Bisson ◽  
James G. Graham ◽  
Ana Bedran-Russo ◽  
...  

Flavonoids are a vast group of metabolites that are essential for vascular plant physiology and, thus, occur ubiquitously in plant-based/-derived foods. The solitary designation of thousands of known flavonoids hides the fact that their metabolomes are structurally highly diverse, consist of disparate subgroups, yet undergo a certain degree of metabolic interconversion. Unsurprisingly, flavonoids have been an important theme in nutrition research. Already in the 1930s, it was discovered that the ability of synthetic Vitamin C to treat scurvy was inferior to that of plant extracts containing Vitamin C. Subsequent experimental evidence led to the proposal of Vitamin P (permeability) as an essential phytochemical nutrient. However, attempts to isolate and characterize Vitamin P gave confusing and sometimes irreproducible results, which today can be interpreted as rooted in the unrecognized (residual) complexity of the intervention materials. Over the years, primarily flavonoids (and some coumarins) were known as having Vitamin P-like activity. More recently, in a NAPRALERT meta-analysis, essentially all of these Vitamin P candidates were identified as IMPs (Invalid/Improbable/Interfering Metabolic Panaceas). While the historic inability to define a single compound and specific mode of action led to general skepticism about the Vitamin P proposition for “bioflavonoids,” the more logical conclusion is that several abundant and metabolically labile plant constituents fill this essential role in human nutrition at the interface of vitamins, cofactors, and micronutrients. Reviewing 100+ years of the multilingual Vitamin P and C literature provides the rationales for this conclusion and new perspectives for future research.


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