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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Yanliang Zhu ◽  
Dongchun Ren ◽  
Yi Xu ◽  
Deheng Qian ◽  
Mingyu Fan ◽  

Trajectory prediction of multiple agents in a crowded scene is an essential component in many applications, including intelligent monitoring, autonomous robotics, and self-driving cars. Accurate agent trajectory prediction remains a significant challenge because of the complex dynamic interactions among the agents and between them and the surrounding scene. To address the challenge, we propose a decoupled attention-based spatial-temporal modeling strategy in the proposed trajectory prediction method. The past and current interactions among agents are dynamically and adaptively summarized by two separate attention-based networks and have proven powerful in improving the prediction accuracy. Moreover, it is optional in the proposed method to make use of the road map and the plan of the ego-agent for scene-compliant and accurate predictions. The road map feature is efficiently extracted by a convolutional neural network, and the features of the ego-agent’s plan is extracted by a gated recurrent network with an attention module based on the temporal characteristic. Experiments on benchmark trajectory prediction datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is effective when the ego-agent plan and the the surrounding scene information are provided and achieves state-of-the-art performance with only the observed trajectories.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Ankit Temurnikar ◽  
Pushpneel Verma ◽  
Gaurav Dhiman

VANET (Vehicle Ad-hoc Network) is an emerging technology in today’s intelligent transport system. In VANET, there are many moving nodes which are called the vehicle running on the road. They communicate with each other to provide the information to driver regarding the road condition, traffic, weather and parking. VANET is a kind of network where moving nodes talk with each other with the help of equipment. There are various other things which also make complete to VANET like OBU (onboard unit), RSU (Road Aside Unit) and CA (Certificate authority). In this paper, a new PSO enable multi-hop technique is proposed which helps in VANET to Select the best route and find the stable cluster head and remove the malicious node from the network to avoid the false messaging. The false can be occurred when there is the malicious node in a network. Clustering is a technique for making a group of the same type node. This proposed work is based on PSO enable clustering and its importance in VANET. While using this approach in VANET, it has increased the 20% packet delivery ratio.

10.1142/12550 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Deborah D L Chung

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Bin Lu ◽  
Xiaoying Gan ◽  
Haiming Jin ◽  
Luoyi Fu ◽  
Xinbing Wang ◽  

Urban traffic flow forecasting is a critical issue in intelligent transportation systems. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of urban road conditions, how to capture the dynamic spatiotemporal correlation and make accurate predictions is very challenging. In most of existing works, urban road network is often modeled as a fixed graph based on local proximity. However, such modeling is not sufficient to describe the dynamics of the road network and capture the global contextual information. In this paper, we consider constructing the road network as a dynamic weighted graph through attention mechanism. Furthermore, we propose to seek both spatial neighbors and semantic neighbors to make more connections between road nodes. We propose a novel Spatiotemporal Adaptive Gated Graph Convolution Network ( STAG-GCN ) to predict traffic conditions for several time steps ahead. STAG-GCN mainly consists of two major components: (1) multivariate self-attention Temporal Convolution Network ( TCN ) is utilized to capture local and long-range temporal dependencies across recent, daily-periodic and weekly-periodic observations; (2) mix-hop AG-GCN extracts selective spatial and semantic dependencies within multi-layer stacking through adaptive graph gating mechanism and mix-hop propagation mechanism. The output of different components are weighted fused to generate the final prediction results. Extensive experiments on two real-world large scale urban traffic dataset have verified the effectiveness, and the multi-step forecasting performance of our proposed models outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
pp. 48-70

ABSTRACT The criticism made by Friedrich A. Hayek to A Treatise on Money by John Maynard Keynes, and the subsequent controversy that followed with the involvement of members of the Cambridge Circus, sustained important elements to Keynes’ abandonment of his earlier ideas and to his way to General Theory. The figure and position of Hayek operated to clarify the underlying differences and the new theoretical routes for Keynes, one that was more explicitly opposite to critical authors drawing from Knut Wicksell. To some degree, the road to General Theory was paved in the famous 1931 controversy - in particular the rejection of the Wicksell connection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Meriem Guerar ◽  
Luca Verderame ◽  
Mauro Migliardi ◽  
Francesco Palmieri ◽  
Alessio Merlo

A recent study has found that malicious bots generated nearly a quarter of overall website traffic in 2019 [102]. These malicious bots perform activities such as price and content scraping, account creation and takeover, credit card fraud, denial of service, and so on. Thus, they represent a serious threat to all businesses in general, but are especially troublesome for e-commerce, travel, and financial services. One of the most common defense mechanisms against bots abusing online services is the introduction of Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA), so it is extremely important to understand which CAPTCHA schemes have been designed and their actual effectiveness against the ever-evolving bots. To this end, this work provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art in the field of CAPTCHA schemes and defines a new classification that includes all the emerging schemes. In addition, for each identified CAPTCHA category, the most successful attack methods are summarized by also describing how CAPTCHA schemes evolved to resist bot attacks, and discussing the limitations of different CAPTCHA schemes from the security, usability, and compatibility point of view. Finally, an assessment of the open issues, challenges, and opportunities for further study is provided, paving the road toward the design of the next-generation secure and user-friendly CAPTCHA schemes.

Nirbhay Kumar Chaubey ◽  
Dhananjay Yadav

<span>Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an emerging technology which can be very helpful for providing safety and security as well as for intelligent transportation services. But due to wireless communication of vehicles and high mobility it has certain security issues which cost the safety and security of people on the road. One of the major security concerns is the Sybil attack in which the attacker creates dummy identities to gain high influence in the network that causes delay in some services and fake voting in the network to misguide others. The early detection of this attack can prevent people from being misguided by the attacker and save them from getting into any kind of trap. In this research paper, Sybil attack is detected by first applying the Poisson distribution algorithm to predict the traffic on the road and in the second approach, analysis of the network performance for packet delivery ratio (PDR) is performed in malign and benign environment. The simulation result shows that PDR decreases in presence of fake vehicles in the network. Our approach is simple and effective as it does not require high computational overhead and also does not violate the privacy issues of people in the network.</span>

Stefan Ionita ◽  
Stefan Velicu

The main objective of the research paper is the theoretical and experimental analysis of the method proposed for sealing (clogging) cracks in asphalt, by means of a cylindrical bitumen bar, enriched with plastic and rubber granules (obtained from the use of waste), which melts and infuses into the cracked zone by rotation and friction against it. After analyzing the technical characteristics of the sealed area and the time required to apply the bitumen layer, this method can be chosen in the future to the detriment of the expensive operations of partial milling of the cracked wear layer, making possible the repair of cracks by sealing(clogging), using the friction procedure. The research results highlighted the diminution of road maintenance costs using the method of friction, the decrease of cracks repair time, maintaining the initial characteristics of the repaired area, incorporating a waterproofing material (plastic and rubbber granules from recycled waste), keeping the wear layer in good conditions, possibility of embedding an intelligent system of traffic monitoring at low costs etc.

Ida Syafiza Binti Md Isa ◽  
Choy Ja Yeong ◽  
Nur Latif Azyze bin Mohd Shaari Azyze

Nowadays, the number of road accident in Malaysia is increasing expeditiously. One of the ways to reduce the number of road accident is through the development of the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) by professional engineers. Several ADAS system has been proposed by taking into consideration the delay tolerance and the accuracy of the system itself. In this work, a traffic sign recognition system has been developed to increase the safety of the road users by installing the system inside the car for driver’s awareness. TensorFlow algorithm has been considered in this work for object recognition through machine learning due to its high accuracy. The algorithm is embedded in the Raspberry Pi 3 for processing and analysis to detect the traffic sign from the real-time video recording from Raspberry Pi camera NoIR. This work aims to study the accuracy, delay and reliability of the developed system using a Raspberry Pi 3 processor considering several scenarios related to the state of the environment and the condition of the traffic signs. A real-time testbed implementation has been conducted considering twenty different traffic signs and the results show that the system has more than 90% accuracy and is reliable with an acceptable delay.

2022 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. 106014
Moins Ben ◽  
Hernando David ◽  
Buyle Matthias ◽  
France Cyril ◽  
Wim Van den bergh ◽  

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