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Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Author(s):  
Huisheng Wu ◽  
Shan Hong ◽  
Maogui Hu ◽  
Yongheng Li ◽  
Wenzheng Yun

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a serious air pollutant emitted from different sources in many developing regions worldwide, where the contribution of different potential influencing factors remains unclear. Using Shandong, a typical industrial province in China as an example, we studied the spatial distribution of SO2 and used geographical detectors to explore its influencing factors. Based on the daily average concentration in Shandong Province from 2014 to 2019, we explored the influence of the diurnal temperature range, secondary production, precipitation, wind speed, soot emission, sunshine duration, and urbanization rate on the SO2 concentration. The results showed that the diurnal temperature range had the largest impact on SO2, with q values of 0.69, followed by secondary production (0.51), precipitation (0.46), and wind speed (0.42). There was no significant difference in the SO2 distribution between pairs of sunshine durations, soot emissions, and urbanization rates. The meteorological factors of precipitation, wind speed, and diurnal temperature range were sensitive to seasonal changes. There were nonlinear enhancement relationships among those meteorological factors to the SO2 pollution. There were obvious geographical differences in the human activity factors of soot emissions, secondary production, and urbanization rates. The amount of SO2 emissions should be adjusted in different seasons considering the varied effect of meteorological factors.


Author(s):  
C. Song ◽  
Y. Wang ◽  
J.Y. Liu ◽  
F. Zhao ◽  
X.R. Huang ◽  
...  

Background: Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the survival, growth and metabolism of fish. The current study was aimed to study the effects of water temperature on the metabolic enzyme activities of juvenile Siganus guttatus. Methods: The juveniles were domesticated at 28±1°C for two weeks and then the temperature was adjusted to the target temperature groups (31°C, 27°C, 23°C and 19°C) by the gradually increasing or decreasing temperature with the change rate of 2°C per day. The experiment lasted for 70 d. At the end of the experiment, the fish were anesthetized and all the livers were dissected on ice plate and stored in the refrigerator at -80°C for the determination of enzyme activity. Result: The activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) tend to be increased with the reduction of temperature. The above enzymes activities in 19°C group were highest. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and citrate synthase (CS) was lowest in 19°C. These results suggests that 19°C had exceeded the suitable temperature range for juvenile S. guttatus. At low temperature, S. guttatus mainly use fat for energy, but less anaerobic metabolism for energy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 957
Author(s):  
Franziska Steger ◽  
Johanna Reich ◽  
Werner Fuchs ◽  
Simon K.-M. R. Rittmann ◽  
Georg M. Gübitz ◽  
...  

Strategies for depleting carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gases are urgently needed and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) can contribute to solving this problem. They catalyze the hydration of CO2 in aqueous solutions and therefore capture the CO2. However, the harsh conditions due to varying process temperatures are limiting factors for the application of enzymes. The current study aims to examine four recombinantly produced CAs from different organisms, namely CAs from Acetobacterium woodii (AwCA or CynT), Persephonella marina (PmCA), Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (MtaCA or Cab) and Sulphurihydrogenibium yellowstonense (SspCA). The highest expression yields and activities were found for AwCA (1814 WAU mg−1 AwCA) and PmCA (1748 WAU mg−1 PmCA). AwCA was highly stable in a mesophilic temperature range, whereas PmCA proved to be exceptionally thermostable. Our results indicate the potential to utilize CAs from anaerobic microorganisms to develop CO2 sequestration applications.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-52

Abstract This study investigates the impact of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons on the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the low-latitude highlands of China (CLLH) based on in-situ DTR observations, ERA5 reanalysis data, and numerical simulations. Diagnoses indicate that the DTR in the CLLH shows a significant positive correlation with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), while a negative correlation with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). When a strengthened ISM occurs with a weakened EASM, an anomalous anticyclonic circulation with downward motion is excited over the CLLH. This anomalous circulation pattern increases the DTR in the rainy season by reducing the medium and high cloud cover in the CLLH. When a weakened ISM with a strengthened EASM decreases the DTR over the CLLH in the rainy season. Numerical experiments help to verify this crucial physical process linking the variability of the ISM and EASM with the DTR in the CLLH. The model results further indicate that the covariability of ISM and EASM contributes most to the variability of the rainy season DTR in the CLLH, followed by the individual variability of the EASM, and the smallest contribution to the rainy season DTR in the CLLH is the individual variability of the ISM.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 546
Author(s):  
Klytaimnistra Katsara ◽  
Konstantina Psatha ◽  
George Kenanakis ◽  
Michalis Aivaliotis ◽  
Vassilis M. Papadakis

Raman spectroscopy is a well-defined spectroscopic technique sensitive to the molecular vibrations of materials, since it provides fingerprint-like information regarding the molecular structure of the analyzed samples. It has been extensively used for non-destructive and label-free cell characterization, particularly in the qualitative and quantitative estimation of amino acids, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Lymphoma cell classification is a crucial task for accurate and prompt lymphoma diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Currently, it is mostly based on limited information and requires costly and time-consuming approaches. In this work, we are proposing a fast characterization and differentiation methodology of lymphoma cell subtypes based on Raman spectroscopy. The study was performed in the temperature range of 15–37 °C to identify the best cell measurement conditions. The proposed methodology is fast, accurate, and requires minimal sample preparation, resulting in a potentially promising, non-invasive strategy for early and accurate cell lymphoma characterization.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1049 ◽  
pp. 102-107
Author(s):  
Aleksandr A. Ragazin ◽  
Vasiliy V. Yashin ◽  
Ilya A. Latushkin ◽  
Evgenii V. Aryshesnkii ◽  
Fedor V. Grechnikov

Objective of the study: study of various homogenization modes effects on mechanical and corrosive properties of rolled sheets from Al-Mg system alloy 1570 with additions of zirconium and scandium transition metals. The sheets were produced in laboratory conditions from the ingot, cast in production DC mold based on the commercial production practices and treatment modes. 4 homogenization modes, 2 tempers H12 and H321, and several modes of stabilization annealing in the temperature range from 240 °C to 325 °C have been reviewed. The samples have been comprehensively examined using optic and electron scanning microscope, mechanical properties were achieved by break test in compliance with ISO 6892-1, corrosion was examined using ASTM G66 and G67 standards. The curve of 1570 alloy sheets softening as the function of annealing temperature was constructed. It was demonstrated that the increasing temperature effect during homogenization leads to strength properties decrease and corrosion resistance improvement due to interdendritic segregation elimination. Among analyzed homogenization modes, 360 - 380 °C - 6 h mode is established as the most practical, and the sheets. produced without stabilization annealing, occurred to be the most resistant to exfoliation corrosion. The sheets, subjected to annealing at 260 °C - 2 h, show no traces of layer corrosion, but have pit corrosion locations rated as «PC» based on ASTM G-66 classification, such rating is unacceptable for the manufacture of products for use in the marine environment.


Author(s):  
Predrag Jevtić ◽  
K. Wade Elliott ◽  
Shelby E. Watkins ◽  
Jonathan A. Sreter ◽  
Katarina Jovic ◽  
...  

Cryoprotection is of interest in many fields of research, necessitating a greater understanding of different cryoprotective agents. Antifreeze proteins have been identified that have the ability to confer cryoprotection in certain organisms. Antifreeze proteins are an evolutionary adaptation that contributes to the freeze resistance of certain fish, insects, bacteria, and plants. These proteins adsorb to an ice crystal's surface and restrict its growth within a certain temperature range. We investigated the ability of an antifreeze protein from the desert beetle Anatolica polita, ApAFP752, to confer cryoprotection in the frog Xenopus laevis. X. laevis eggs and embryos microinjected with ApAFP752 exhibited reduced damage and increased survival after a freeze/thaw cycle in a concentration-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that ApAFP752 localizes to the plasma membrane in eggs and embryonic blastomeres and is not toxic for early development. These studies show the potential of an insect antifreeze protein to confer cryoprotection in amphibian eggs and embryos.


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