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Eileen O. Dareng ◽  
Jonathan P. Tyrer ◽  
Daniel R. Barnes ◽  
Michelle R. Jones ◽  
Xin Yang ◽  

AbstractPolygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, “select and shrink for summary statistics” (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28–1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08–1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21–1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29–1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35–1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.

Leon Moosavi

It is well established within the field of Critical Whiteness Studies that white privilege routinely materialises in Western universities. Yet, even though a third wave of Critical Whiteness Studies is increasingly focussing on whiteness in non-Western contexts, there has been insufficient attention toward whether white privilege also exists in East Asian universities. This article seeks to explore this issue by offering an autoethnography in which the author, a mixed-race academic who is racialised as white on some occasions and as a person of colour on others, critically interrogates whiteness in East Asian higher education. It is argued that those who are racialised as white are privileged in East Asian universities and may even seek to actively sustain this. In departing from the dominant understanding of whiteness as always-and-only privileging, this article also explores the extent to which white academics in East Asia may also be disadvantaged by their whiteness.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-52

Abstract This study investigates the impact of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons on the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the low-latitude highlands of China (CLLH) based on in-situ DTR observations, ERA5 reanalysis data, and numerical simulations. Diagnoses indicate that the DTR in the CLLH shows a significant positive correlation with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), while a negative correlation with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). When a strengthened ISM occurs with a weakened EASM, an anomalous anticyclonic circulation with downward motion is excited over the CLLH. This anomalous circulation pattern increases the DTR in the rainy season by reducing the medium and high cloud cover in the CLLH. When a weakened ISM with a strengthened EASM decreases the DTR over the CLLH in the rainy season. Numerical experiments help to verify this crucial physical process linking the variability of the ISM and EASM with the DTR in the CLLH. The model results further indicate that the covariability of ISM and EASM contributes most to the variability of the rainy season DTR in the CLLH, followed by the individual variability of the EASM, and the smallest contribution to the rainy season DTR in the CLLH is the individual variability of the ISM.

Chen Sheng ◽  
Bian He ◽  
Guoxiong Wu ◽  
Yimin Liu ◽  
Shaoyu Zhang

AbstractThe influences of interannual surface potential vorticity forcing over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) and upper-level circulation are explored in this study. The results show that the interannual EASR and associated circulations are closely related to the surface potential vorticity negative uniform leading mode (PVNUM) over the TP. When the PVNUM is in the positive phase, more rainfall occurs in the Yangtze River valley, South Korea, Japan, and part of northern China, less rainfall occurs in southern China, and vice versa. A possible mechanism by which PVNUM affects EASR is proposed. Unstable air induced by the positive phase of PVNUM could stimulate significant upward motion and a lower-level anomalous cyclone over the TP. As a result, a dipole heating mode with anomalous cooling over the southwestern TP and anomalous heating over the southeastern TP is generated. Sensitivity experiment results regarding this dipole heating mode indicate that anomalous cooling over the southwestern TP leads to local and northeastern Asian negative height anomalies, while anomalous heating over the southeastern TP leads to local positive height anomalies. These results greatly resemble the realistic circulation pattern associated with EASR. Further analysis indicates that the anomalous water vapor transport associated with this anomalous circulation pattern is responsible for the anomalous EASR. Consequently, changes in surface potential vorticity forcing over the TP can induce changes in EASR.

2022 ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Xiu-Qun Yang ◽  
Jiabei Fang ◽  
Lingfeng Tao ◽  
Xiaozhuo Sang ◽  

Abstract The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) is the most prominent tropical subseasonal signature especially over the western North Pacific (WNP). Due to restrictions of methodology in extracting BSISO with band-pass filtering or EOF decomposition, most of the previous studies ignored the asymmetry of BSISO. This study reexamines the BSISO events over WNP and their impacts on the East Asian precipitation. With a hierarchical cluster analysis, the BSISO events over WNP during the summers of 1985-2010 are classified into two categories, the long-period (30-60 day) and short-period (10-20 day) events. The long-period BSISO events manifest as a northward propagating mode with a significant phase asymmetry characterized by a fast development, but a slow decay of the intraseasonal convection. The fast development tends to cause a rapid reversal of the atmospheric anomalies over WNP from an anomalous anticyclone induced by the preceding slow convection suppression to an anomalous cyclone, leading to a fast northeastward retreat of the preceding enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high. Accordingly, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River valley experience a rapid reversal from the increased precipitation to the decreased, while the precipitation in coastal South China keeps decreased. The short-period BSISO events which are symmetric in phase act as a northwestward propagating mode, mainly affecting East Asian precipitation in an oblique belt extending from southwest China to southern Japan and southern Korean Peninsula. Therefore, the two types of the BSISO events especially the asymmetric long-period BSISO events over WNP and their impacts on the East Asian precipitation revealed in this study would provide a new potential for subseasonal-to-seasonal forecast of the East Asian summer monsoon precipitation.

2022 ◽  
Yoshimi Kubota ◽  
Steven Clemens ◽  
Kyung Eun Lee ◽  
Ann Holbourn ◽  
Etsuko Wakisaka ◽  

Abstract The history of abrupt climate change in East Asia is often discussed from hydroclimate proxies that record the isotopic composition of rainfall. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure because water-isotope proxies respond to a wide variety of environmental variables. Here, we investigated millennial-scale climate variability in East Asia over the past 400,000 years using paired foraminiferal oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca records from the East Asian continental margin, thereby resolving variance into temperature and rainfall components. We found that the temperature and rainfall variabilities are largely asynchronous, with times when the global climate shifts from interglacial to glacial periods being the notable exception. These findings highlight the importance of both mean global state and magnitude of North Atlantic variability in determining the East Asian climate. Without a strong North Atlantic forcing, the regional feedback system might generate asynchronous temperature and rainfall variations, which is the background climate feature in East Asia.

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