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Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Haoyu Liu ◽  
Lijuan Wang ◽  
Yufan Dai ◽  
Hong Chen

Based on the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) best-track data, the ERA5 reanalysis, and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) precipitation data, this paper analyzes the reasons for the heavy rainfall event of Super Typhoon Rammasun in 2014, and the results are as follows: (1) Rammasun was blocked by the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), the continental high, and the mid-latitude westerly trough. Such a stable circulation pattern maintained the vortex circulation of Rammasun. (2) During the period of landfall, the southwest summer monsoon surge was reinforced due to the dramatic increase of the zonal wind and the cross-equatorial flow near 108° E. The results of the dynamic monsoon surge index (DMSI) and boundary water vapor budget (BWVB) show that the monsoon surge kept providing abundant water vapor for Rammasun, which led to the enhanced rainfall. (3) The East Asian monsoon manifested an obvious low-frequency oscillation with a main period of 20–40 days in the summer of 2014, which propagated northward significantly. When the low-frequency oscillation reached the extremely active phase, the monsoon surge hit the maximum and influenced the circulation of Rammasun. Meanwhile, the convergence and water vapor flux associated with the low-frequency oscillation significantly contributed to the heavy rainfall.

Eileen O. Dareng ◽  
Jonathan P. Tyrer ◽  
Daniel R. Barnes ◽  
Michelle R. Jones ◽  
Xin Yang ◽  

AbstractPolygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, “select and shrink for summary statistics” (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28–1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08–1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21–1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29–1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35–1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.

Leon Moosavi

It is well established within the field of Critical Whiteness Studies that white privilege routinely materialises in Western universities. Yet, even though a third wave of Critical Whiteness Studies is increasingly focussing on whiteness in non-Western contexts, there has been insufficient attention toward whether white privilege also exists in East Asian universities. This article seeks to explore this issue by offering an autoethnography in which the author, a mixed-race academic who is racialised as white on some occasions and as a person of colour on others, critically interrogates whiteness in East Asian higher education. It is argued that those who are racialised as white are privileged in East Asian universities and may even seek to actively sustain this. In departing from the dominant understanding of whiteness as always-and-only privileging, this article also explores the extent to which white academics in East Asia may also be disadvantaged by their whiteness.

Cheney Jianlin Wong ◽  
Jonathan Yap ◽  
Fei Gao ◽  
Yee How Lau ◽  
Weiting Huang ◽  

Background: MI with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is caused by a heterogenous group of conditions with clinically significant sequelae. Aim: This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and prognosis of MINOCA with MI with obstructive coronary artery disease (MICAD). Methods: Data on patients with a first presentation of MI between 2011 and 2014 were extracted from the Singapore Cardiac Longitudinal Outcomes Database and patients were classified as having either MINOCA or MICAD. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality (ACM) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of ACM, recurrent MI, heart failure hospitalisation and stroke. Results: Of the 4,124 patients who were included in this study, 159 (3.9%) were diagnosed with MINOCA. They were more likely to be women, present with a non-ST-elevation MI, have a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and less likely to have diabetes, previous stroke or smoking history. Over a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, MINOCA patients had a lower incidence of ACM (10.1% versus 16.5%) and MACE (20.8% versus 35.5%) compared with MICAD. On multivariable analysis, patients with MINOCA had a lower risk of ACM (HR 0.42; 95% CI [0.21–0.82]) and MACE (HR 0.42; 95% CI [0.26–0.69]). Within the MINOCA group, older age, higher creatinine, a ST-elevation MI presentation, and the absence of antiplatelet use predicted ACM and MACE. Conclusion: While patients with MINOCA had better clinical outcomes compared with MICAD patients, MINOCA is not a benign entity, with one in five patients experiencing an adverse cardiovascular event in the long term.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-52

Abstract This study investigates the impact of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons on the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the low-latitude highlands of China (CLLH) based on in-situ DTR observations, ERA5 reanalysis data, and numerical simulations. Diagnoses indicate that the DTR in the CLLH shows a significant positive correlation with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), while a negative correlation with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). When a strengthened ISM occurs with a weakened EASM, an anomalous anticyclonic circulation with downward motion is excited over the CLLH. This anomalous circulation pattern increases the DTR in the rainy season by reducing the medium and high cloud cover in the CLLH. When a weakened ISM with a strengthened EASM decreases the DTR over the CLLH in the rainy season. Numerical experiments help to verify this crucial physical process linking the variability of the ISM and EASM with the DTR in the CLLH. The model results further indicate that the covariability of ISM and EASM contributes most to the variability of the rainy season DTR in the CLLH, followed by the individual variability of the EASM, and the smallest contribution to the rainy season DTR in the CLLH is the individual variability of the ISM.

Chen Sheng ◽  
Bian He ◽  
Guoxiong Wu ◽  
Yimin Liu ◽  
Shaoyu Zhang

AbstractThe influences of interannual surface potential vorticity forcing over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) and upper-level circulation are explored in this study. The results show that the interannual EASR and associated circulations are closely related to the surface potential vorticity negative uniform leading mode (PVNUM) over the TP. When the PVNUM is in the positive phase, more rainfall occurs in the Yangtze River valley, South Korea, Japan, and part of northern China, less rainfall occurs in southern China, and vice versa. A possible mechanism by which PVNUM affects EASR is proposed. Unstable air induced by the positive phase of PVNUM could stimulate significant upward motion and a lower-level anomalous cyclone over the TP. As a result, a dipole heating mode with anomalous cooling over the southwestern TP and anomalous heating over the southeastern TP is generated. Sensitivity experiment results regarding this dipole heating mode indicate that anomalous cooling over the southwestern TP leads to local and northeastern Asian negative height anomalies, while anomalous heating over the southeastern TP leads to local positive height anomalies. These results greatly resemble the realistic circulation pattern associated with EASR. Further analysis indicates that the anomalous water vapor transport associated with this anomalous circulation pattern is responsible for the anomalous EASR. Consequently, changes in surface potential vorticity forcing over the TP can induce changes in EASR.

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