Rainy Season
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 011-022
Author(s):  
Richard Kabuyanga Kabuseba ◽  
Pierrot Lundimu Tugirimana ◽  
Jean Pierre Elongi Moyene ◽  
Xavier Kinenkinda Kalume ◽  
Jean-Baptiste Kakoma Sakatolo Zambèze

Background: The etiology of preeclampsia remains less well known. It is noted that low vitamin D levels are associated with a high risk of preeclampsia (PE). Calcium (Ca2+) levels during pregnancy appear to be involved in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Recent studies indicate that serum calcium levels may have a role in preeclampsia. Vitamin D promotes absorption of proper concentration of calcium in the blood which helps to lower blood pressure. The complications associated with calcium deficiency during a normal pregnancy are numerous and have not been extensively studied in Goma. Objective: To assess blood calcium levels (ionic and total) in preeclamptic women and to analyse the seasonal influence on preeclampsia in Goma. Method: A prospective case-control study (without matching) of 190 pregnant women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases for a case-control ratio of 1∶1 was conducted in six hospitals in Goma. Blood ionogram was performed by an automated system directly after blood sampling and vitamin D was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent method. Results: The mean ionised calcium level in preeclamptic woman was 1.24±0.16 mmol/L (0.48-1.59) compared to 1.27±0.17 mmol/L (0.88-2.30) in normal pregnant woman (p=0.214). A slight negative correlation between blood calcium and blood pressure was observed in pregnant women. Low vitamin D levels were associated with preeclampsia. Hypovitaminosis D in the preeclamptic group was more observed during the rainy season than during the dry season. Pregnancies complicated by PE were from fertilisations occurring during the rainy season while the dry season was characterised by a high admission of preeclamptics. Conclusion: The study found that preeclamptic women in Goma had hypocalcemia. There was also a weak negative correlation between blood pressure and serum calcium levels. The majority of preeclamptics were diagnosed during the dry season, while conception with a PE complication occurred during the rainy season. As this is a first study in this area for the Great Lakes region of Africa, a more in-depth study with a larger sample size is desired.


Author(s):  
J. Bamrungrai ◽  
A. Polthanee ◽  
B. Tubana ◽  
V. Tre-loges ◽  
A. Promkhambut

Background: In north-eastern Thailand, sugarcane is planted normally in late rainy season wherein the plants may experience drought stress during its early growth stage in dry season and waterlogging stress during late growth stage at peak of rainy season. Hence, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of soil application alone and soil combined with foliar application of nutrients on growth, yield and sugar quality of sugarcane grown under rainfed conditions. Methods: The field experiment was conducted during November 2016 to December 2017. A split-plot design with three replications was laid out. The two sugarcane cultivars (KK3, K93-219) were assigned as main plots. The fertilizer application methods were assigned as sub-plots that comprised of four treatments: (1) soil applied NPK, (2) soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 90 days after planting (DAP), (3) soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 210 DAP and (4) soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 90 and 210 DAP. Result: The soil NPK + foliar N and K applied at 90 and 210 DAP improved yield components and cane yield. The cultivar K93-219 produced significantly higher cane yield than KK3. The fertilizer application methods and cultivars had no significant effect on sugar quality such as brix (%), purity (%), polarity (%), fiber (%) and commercial cane sugar (CCS-%).


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-52

Abstract This study investigates the impact of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons on the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the low-latitude highlands of China (CLLH) based on in-situ DTR observations, ERA5 reanalysis data, and numerical simulations. Diagnoses indicate that the DTR in the CLLH shows a significant positive correlation with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), while a negative correlation with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). When a strengthened ISM occurs with a weakened EASM, an anomalous anticyclonic circulation with downward motion is excited over the CLLH. This anomalous circulation pattern increases the DTR in the rainy season by reducing the medium and high cloud cover in the CLLH. When a weakened ISM with a strengthened EASM decreases the DTR over the CLLH in the rainy season. Numerical experiments help to verify this crucial physical process linking the variability of the ISM and EASM with the DTR in the CLLH. The model results further indicate that the covariability of ISM and EASM contributes most to the variability of the rainy season DTR in the CLLH, followed by the individual variability of the EASM, and the smallest contribution to the rainy season DTR in the CLLH is the individual variability of the ISM.


Author(s):  
Yayat Hidayat ◽  
Wahyu Purwakusuma ◽  
Sri Malahayati Yusuf ◽  
Latief Mahir Rachman ◽  
Enni Dwi Wahjunie ◽  
...  

The research is aimed to analyze leachate, surface water and ground water characteristics around  Galuga landfill site, Bogor District. Water samples had been taken in dry season of 2014 and in the end of rainy season of 2015 from several sites in areas around Galuga landfills which included leachate water, surface water, and ground water.  Leachate, surface water and ground water had   temperature and pH in normal ranges; whereas nitrate and Pb contents were high to very high levels, especially in  site adjacent to waste piles. The concentrations decreased in line with increasing distance from waste piles. Higher content of nitrate in leachate occurred in dry season, but in well water it was found in rainy season. Meanwhile,  Pb content in well water were high, both in dry and rainy seasons. Concentrations of nitrate and Pb in leachate water were higher than wastewater quality standard, so that the leachate water were not safe to be discharged directly to natural water body. The high content of nitrate and Pb caused the well water unsuitable to be consumed without water treatment processing.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cissoko Mady ◽  
Mady CISSOKO ◽  
Issaka Sagara ◽  
Jordi Landier ◽  
Abdoulaye Guindo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In malaria endemic countries, control interventions are performed during the high malaria transmission season using epidemiological surveillance data. One such intervention, seasonal chemoprevention (SMC), consists of the monthly administration of antimalarial drugs to children under 5 years. This study proposes an anticipating approach for adapting the timing of SMC interventions in Mali and the number of rounds. Our primary objective was to select the best approach for anticipating the onset of the high transmission season in the different health districts of Mali based on epidemiological surveillance and rainfall data. Our secondary objective was to evaluate the number of malaria cases, hospitalisations, and deaths in children under 5 years that could be prevented in Mali using the selected approach and the additional cost associated.Method Confirmed malaria cases and weekly rainfall data were collected for the 75 health districts of Mali for the 2014-2019 period. The onset of the rainy season, the onset of the high transmission season, the lag between these two events and the duration of the high transmission season were determined for each health district. Two approaches for anticipating the onset of the high transmission season in 2019 were evaluated. Results In 2014-2019, the onset of the rainy season ranged from W17 April to W34 August and that of the high transmission season from W25 June to W40 September. The lag between these two events ranged from 5 to 12 weeks. The duration of the high transmission season ranged from 3 to 6 months. The best approach anticipated the onset of the high transmission season 2019 in June in 2 districts, July in 46 districts, August in 21 districts and September in 6 districts. Using this approach over the 2014-2019 period would have led to changing the timing of SMC interventions in 36 health districts and would have prevented 43,819 cases, 1,943 hospitalisations and 70 deaths in children under 5 years. The additional cost of using our proposed approach is less than 5% of the current approach. Conclusion Adapting the timing of SMC interventions using our proposed approach would improve the prevention of malaria cases, hospitalisations, and deaths for a reasonable additional cost.


Abstract We present a climatological study of aerosols in four representative Caribbean islands based on daily mean values of aerosol optical properties for the period 2008- 2016, using the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Ångström Exponent (AE) to classify the dominant aerosol type. A climatological assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of the main aerosol types, their links with synoptic patterns and the transport from different sources is provided. Maximum values of AOD occur in the rainy season, coinciding with the minimum in AE and an increased occurrence of dust, while the minimum of AOD occurs in the dry season, due to the predominance of marine aerosols. Marine and dust aerosol are more frequent in the easternmost islands and decrease westwards due to an increasing of continental and mixture dust aerosols. Therefore, the westernmost station displays the most heterogeneous composition of aerosols. Using a weather type classification, we identify a quantifiable influence of the atmospheric circulation in the distribution of Caribbean aerosols. However, they can occur under relatively weak and/or diverse synoptic patterns, typically involving transient systems and specific configurations of the Azores High that depend on the considered station. Backward trajectories indicate that dry-season marine aerosols and rainy-season dust are transported by air parcels travelling within the tropical easterly winds. The main source region for both types of aerosols is the subtropical eastern Atlantic, except for Cuba, where the largest contributor to dry-season marine aerosols is the subtropical western Atlantic. Different aerosol types follow similar pathways, suggesting a key role of emission sources in determining the spatio-temporal distribution of Caribbean aerosols.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 52-58
Author(s):  
S. Narayana ◽  
◽  
S. Chander ◽  
S. Doddachowdappa ◽  
S. Sabtharishi ◽  
...  

Aim: The present study was undertaken on population dynamics and estimation of protein, water-soluble carbohydrates and glycogen contents in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens to explore their migratory behaviour. Methodology: Brown planthopper populations were monitored and collected using sweep nets from 23rd standard meteorological week (SMW) to 47th SMW during 2017 and 2018 rainy seasons to understand population dynamics of the pest. The protein, water-soluble carbohydrates and glycogen contents were estimated from the pest samples collected during 36th to 44th SMW in 2017 and 2018 rainy seasons. Results: Brown planthopper population were not observed in rice farm during 23rd SMW to 28th SMW during two years of study. However, macropterous form of the pest first appeared in the farm during 29th SMW and peaked during 43rd SMW. Thereafter, population declined and disappeared after 47th SMW during both the years. Water-soluble carbohydrates and glycogen contents varied significantly different weeks which remained low during 36th-39th SMW, however, increased gradually towards the end of the rainy season 2017 and 2018. On the other hand, protein content significantly varied among different weeks unlike the trend of water-soluble carbohydrates and glycogen. Interpretation: The study revealed the absence of brown plant hopper during summer season preceding rainy season, and the accumulation of bio-chemical compounds towards the end of rainy season under Delhi environment is perhaps suggestive of migration of the pest from unknown areas during rainy season to Delhi and likely preparedness of the pest for emigration to safer areas from Delhi, respectively.


Author(s):  
Lafridha Alyazahari ◽  
Luthfi Amri Wicaksono ◽  
Dwi Nurtanto

A Landslide is the movement of soil mass or rock constituents down the slope due to disturbance of soil stability. One of the factors that affect soil stability is the rainy season as happened in Sumberwuluh Village, Candipuro District, Lumajang Regency. The alternative used to stabilize the slope is by changing the slope geometry, then adding geoframe reinforcement. This study aims to determine the value of the factor of safety (SF) of unreinforced slopes, after changing the slope geometry, and after being given geoframe reinforcement. The method used in analyzing slope stability is the Ordinary/Fellenius method. The results of the calculation of slope stability without reinforcement using the Rocscience Slide software obtained a SF of 0.719, while the manual calculation obtained a SF of 0.7191. The two values ​​of the safety factor are less than 1.25, which means that landslides often occur. The results of the calculation of slope stability after changing the geometry of the slopes obtained a SF of 0.828 where the value is less than 1.25 which means that landslides often occur. The slopes that have been changed geometry are added with geoframe reinforcement. The results of the calculation of slope stability using geoframe reinforcement obtained a SF of 1.315 where the value is more than 1.25 which means that landslides are rare or slope in a safe condition.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 157
Author(s):  
Qian Xiong ◽  
Zhongyi Sun ◽  
Wei Cui ◽  
Jizhou Lei ◽  
Xiuxian Fu ◽  
...  

Droughts that occur in tropical forests (TF) are expected to significantly impact the gross primary production (GPP) and the capacity of carbon sinks. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate and analyze the sensitivities of TF-GPP to the characteristics of drought events for understanding global climate change. In this study, the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was used to define the drought intensity. Then, the spatially explicit individual-based dynamic global vegetation model (SEIB-DGVM) was utilized to simulate the dynamic process of GPP corresponding to multi-gradient drought scenarios—rain and dry seasons × 12 level durations × 4 level intensities. The results showed that drought events in the dry season have a significantly greater impact on TF-GPP than drought events in the rainy season, especially short-duration drought events. Furthermore, the impact of drought events in the rainy season is mainly manifested in long-duration droughts. Due to abundant rainfall in the rainy season, only extreme drought events caused a significant reduction in GPP, while the lack of water in the dry season caused significant impacts due to light drought. Effective precipitation and soil moisture stock in the rainy season are the most important support for the tropical forest dry season to resist extreme drought events in the study area. Further water deficit may render the tropical forest ecosystem more sensitive to drought events.


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Author(s):  
Aïchatou Nadia Christelle Dao ◽  
Fernand Sankara ◽  
Salimata Pousga ◽  
Kalifa Coulibaly ◽  
Jacques Philippe Nacoulma ◽  
...  

This study aimed to promote the use of termites as feed in traditional poultry farming by developing sustainable and inexpensive termite trapping techniques. Various tests were carried out in Burkina Faso to improve the traditional technique of trapping termites of the genus Macrotermes using a reversed container filled with organic matters. We studied the effect of containers’ types, substrates, habitats, harvesting times, duration of trap deposition, and season on the quantity of termites trapped. Calabashes and terra cotta pots trapped more termites than iron boxes, but calabashes were quickly destroyed by termites. The quantity of termites harvested increased proportionally with the volume of the pot and was higher in a cultivated habitat than in a forest, despite the higher number of termite mounds in the forest. The quantity of termites harvested was lowest in the cold-dry season and highest during the rainy season, however, sizeable amounts of termites were collected throughout the year. Among six substrates and mixtures of substrates tested, maize cobs trapped the highest number of termites and cow dung the lowest. The best time of harvest varied among seasons and, if substrates are abundant, it is more efficient to empty the containers on a daily basis.


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