Breast Carcinoma
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Jun-tao Guo

AbstractInsertions and deletions (Indels) represent one of the major variation types in the human genome and have been implicated in diseases including cancer. To study the features of somatic indels in different cancer genomes, we investigated the indels from two large samples of cancer types: invasive breast carcinoma (BRCA) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Besides mapping somatic indels in both coding and untranslated regions (UTRs) from the cancer whole exome sequences, we investigated the overlap between these indels and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), the key elements for regulation of gene expression that have been found in both coding and non-coding sequences. Compared to the germline indels in healthy genomes, somatic indels contain more coding indels with higher than expected frame-shift (FS) indels in cancer genomes. LUAD has a higher ratio of deletions and higher coding and FS indel rates than BRCA. More importantly, these somatic indels in cancer genomes tend to locate in sequences with important functions, which can affect the core secondary structures of proteins and have a bigger overlap with predicted TFBSs in coding regions than the germline indels. The somatic CDS indels are also enriched in highly conserved nucleotides when compared with germline CDS indels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11478
Qi He ◽  
Maria Jamalpour ◽  
Eric Bergquist ◽  
Robin L. Anderson ◽  
Karin Gustafsson ◽  

Metastasis reflects both the inherent properties of tumor cells and the response of the stroma to the presence of the tumor. Vascular barrier properties, either due to endothelial cell (EC) or pericyte function, play an important role in metastasis in addition to the contribution of the immune system. The Shb gene encodes the Src homology-2 domain protein B that operates downstream of tyrosine kinases in both vascular and immune cells. We have investigated E0771.lmb breast carcinoma metastasis in mice with conditional deletion of the Shb gene using the Cdh5-CreERt2 transgene, resulting in inactivation of the Shb-gene in EC and some hematopoietic cell populations. Lung metastasis from orthotopic tumors, tumor vascular and immune cell characteristics, and immune cell gene expression profiles were determined. We found no increase in vascular leakage that could explain the observed increase in metastasis upon the loss of Shb expression. Instead, Shb deficiency in EC promoted the recruitment of monocytic/macrophagic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC), an immune cell type that confers a suppressive immune response, thus enhancing lung metastasis. An MDSC-promoting cytokine/chemokine profile was simultaneously observed in tumors grown in mice with EC-specific Shb deficiency, providing an explanation for the expanded mMDSC population. The results demonstrate an intricate interplay between tumor EC and immune cells that pivots between pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral properties, depending on relevant genetic and/or environmental factors operating in the microenvironment.

Jiahui Ye ◽  
Jiajun Shi ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Yin Zhang ◽  
jinqiu Tao ◽  

IntroductionIn this study, titanium nanoparticles (TiNPs) were synthesized in an aqueous medium using Alhagi maurorum extract as stabilizing and reducing agents.Material and methodsUltraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) were the techniques to characterize the biosynthetic of TiNPs. According to the XRD analysis. To survey the anti-human breast cancer effects of TiNPs, MTT assay was used on the common breast cancer cell lines i.e., breast cancer (Breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), infiltrating ductal cell carcinoma (Hs 319.T), inflammatory carcinoma of the breast (UACC-732), and metastatic carcinoma (MDA-MB-453) cell lines.Results16.08 nm was measured for TiNPs crystal size. SEM images exhibited a uniform spherical morphology in range size of 12.16 to 43.46 nm for the biosynthesized nanoparticles respectively. The cell viability of breast carcinoma cells decreased dose-dependently in the titanium nanoparticles presence. The IC50 of A. maurorum and titanium particles on MCF7 cell line were 680 and 359 µg/mL, on Hs 319.T cell line were 507 and 191 µg/mL, on UACC-732 cell line were 477 and 217 µg/mL, and on MDA-MB-453cell line were 507 and 191 µg/mL, respectively. TiNPs had high anti-breast cancer activities dose-dependently against MCF7, Hs 319.T, UACC-732, and MDA-MB-453 cell lines.ConclusionsThe best result of anti-breast cancer effects was seen in the case of the Hs 319.T cell line.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1295
Gauri Gaur ◽  
Janhavi Y. Sawant ◽  
Ankita S. Chavan ◽  
Vishwa A. Khatri ◽  
Yueh-Hsin Liu ◽  

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, is known to be able to disseminate and colonize various organs and tissues of its hosts, which is very crucial for its pathogenicity and survival. Recent studies have shown the presence of B. burgdorferi DNA in various breast cancer tissues, in some with poor prognosis, which raises the question about whether B. burgdorferi can interact with mammary epithelial cells and could have any effect on their physiology, including tumorigenic processes. As the model in this study, we have used MCF 10A normal and MDA-MB-231 tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells and infected both cell lines with B. burgdorferi. Our immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy results showed that B. burgdorferi is capable of invading normal epithelial and breast carcinoma cell lines within 24 h; however, the infection rate for the breast carcinoma cell lines was significantly higher. While the infection of epithelial cells with B. burgdorferi did not cause any changes in cell proliferation rates, it showed a significant effect on the invasion and migratory capacity of the breast cancer cells, but not on the normal epithelial cells, as determined by Matrigel invasion and wound healing assays. We have also found that the levels of expression of several epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (fibronectin, vimentin, and Twist1/2) changed, with a significant increase in tissue remodeling marker (MMP-9) in MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated by quantitative Western blot analyses. This observation further confirmed that B. burgdorferi infection can affect the in vitro migratory and invasive properties of MDA-MB-231 tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. In summary, our results suggest that B. burgdorferi can invade breast cancer tumor cells and it can increase their tumorigenic phenotype, which urges the need for further studies on whether B. burgdorferi could have any role in breast cancer development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-52
Kit Cheng Wai ◽  
Kin Iong Chan ◽  
Hong Ting Vong ◽  
Xue Yun Zhong ◽  
Jian Ming Wen

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Wu Zhou ◽  
Yong-Zhong Li ◽  
Li-Min Gao ◽  
Di-Ming Cai

ObjectivePrevious studies have mostly discussed the clinical manifestations and prognosis of mucinous breast carcinoma with a micropapillary pattern. The purposes of this study were to investigate the sonographic features of pure mucinous breast carcinoma with micropapillary pattern (MUMPC) and to identify the role of ultrasound in the differential diagnosis between MUMPC and conventional pure mucinous breast carcinoma (cPMBC).Materials and MethodsWe obtained written informed consent from all patients, and the Ethics Committee of West China Hospital approved this retrospective study. The study was conducted between May and August 2020. We enrolled 133 patients with 133 breast lesions confirmed as mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) histopathologically between January 2014 and January 2020.We retrospectively assessed sonographic features (margin, shape, internal echogenicity, calcification, posterior acoustic feature, invasive growth, blood flow grade, and rate of missed diagnosis) and clinical characteristics (age, tumor size, tumor texture, initial symptom, and lymph node metastasis). Bivariable analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0.ResultsThe 133 lesions included 11 MUMPCs, 65 cPMBCs, and 57 mixed MBCs (MMBCs). There were significant differences in margin, shape, calcification, posterior acoustic feature, invasive growth, rate of missed diagnosis, average tumor size, and lymph node metastasis among the three groups (p < 0.05). The subsequent pairwise comparisons showed that there were significant differences in lymph node metastasis, margin, and invasive growth between MUMPC and cPMBC (p < 0.05). In patients aged >45 years, there was a significant difference in tumor size among the three groups (p = 0.045), and paired comparison showed that the average tumor size in the cPMBC group was larger than that in the MMBC group (p = 0.014).ConclusionMUMPC showed a non-circumscribed margin and invasive growth more frequently than cPMBC did. Lymphatic metastasis was more likely to occur in MUMPC than cPMBC. Ultrasound is helpful to distinguish MUMPC from cPMBC.

Dalia Bayoumi ◽  
Amal Sakrana ◽  
Ebrahim Abdelhalim ◽  
Eman Alnaghy

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and functional MRI (diffusion and MR spectroscopy) using the latest MRI breast imaging reporting and data system (MRI-BIRADS) descriptors and non-BIRADS items for differentiation of mucinous breast carcinomas from fibroadenomas. Methods We included 19 cases of mucinous breast carcinoma and 37 cases of fibroadenoma. DCE-MRI, Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and multi-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) were done, MRI-BIRADS (5th edition) analysis of the lesions was performed, and histopathological examination of all cases was done. Results According to univariate analysis, mucinous carcinoma was frequently detected in older age-group (COR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1–1.7 and p value < 0.001) and had more frequent irregular borders and non-circumscribed margins than fibroadenoma (COR = 11.6, 95% CI = 2–66.4 and p value  = 0.002). All mucinous carcinoma had high T2 signal. Fibroadenomas had more frequent homogenous enhancement than mucinous carcinoma; none of the fibroadenomas had rim enhancement nor enhancing internal septations; mucinous carcinoma had more frequent rim enhancement and (n = 6, p value  < 0.001) and enhancing internal septations (n = 7, p value  < 0.001). Fibroadenoma had frequent dark non-enhancing internal septations than mucinous carcinoma (p value  < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, mucinous carcinoma had significant combination of being common in older age, larger in size, with irregular shape, and non-circumscribed margins. On ADC map and MRS, mucinous carcinoma had higher ADC values and higher CHO.SNR than fibroadenoma. The mean ADC value of mucinous carcinoma was 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−3mm2/s, which was significantly higher than that of fibroadenoma (1.1 ± 0.1 × 10−3mm2/s), with p = 0.002. Also, the mean CHO.SNR was significantly higher in mucinous carcinoma (3.1 ± 0.8) than fibroadenoma (0.8 ± 0.5) with p value  < 0.001. According to our results, the presence of type 3 (washout curve), dark internal septations, non-circumscribed margins and irregular shape of the lesion showed the highest sensitivity and accuracy for differentiation of mucinous carcinomas and fibroadenomas (100, 78.6%), (89.4, 82%), (86.5, 80.3%) and (81, 71.4%), respectively. Conclusion The combined use of DCE-MRI, DW-MRI and MRS with breast MRI-BIRADS descriptors and non-BIRADS items increases the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of mucinous carcinomas from fibroadenomas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Haiqing Wang ◽  
Chengbei Bao ◽  
Ting Gong ◽  
Chao Ji

Breast carcinoma en cuirasse (CeC) is an extremely rare form of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer, characterized by diffuse sclerodermoid induration of the skin. It may be difficult to distinguish CeC from some skin diseases, including postirradiation morphea, inflammatory breast cancer, radiation dermatitis, and other cutaneous metastases, but it can be easily discerned by histology. Because of the small number of documented cases, the treatment consensus has not been clearly defined. Here, we show a 45-year-old woman with grade III infiltrating ductal carcinoma manifesting as CeC to the chest wall. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the catastrophic natural progression of this rare malignancy.

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