Breast Tissues
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Natascia Marino ◽  
Rana German ◽  
Ram Podicheti ◽  
Pam Rockey ◽  
George E. Sandusky ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Family with sequence similarity 83 member A (FAM83A) presents oncogenic properties in several cancers including breast cancer (BC). Recently, we reported FAM83A overexpression in normal breast tissues from women at high risk of breast cancer. We now hypothesize that FAM83A is a key factor in BC initiation. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate FAM83A protein levels in both a normal breast tissue microarray (TMA, N=411) and a breast tumor TMA (N=349). EGFR staining and its correlation with FAM83A expression were also assessed. Lentivirus-mediated manipulation of FAM83A expression in primary and hTERT-immortalized breast epithelial cells was employed. Biological and molecular alterations upon FAM83A overexpression/downregulation and FAM83A’s interaction partners were investigated.Results: TMA analysis revealed a 1.5-fold increase in FAM83A expression level in BC cases as compared with normal breast tissues (p<0.0001). FAM83A protein expression was directly correlated with EGFR level in both normal and BC tissues. In in vitro assays, exogenous expression of FAM83A in either primary or immortalized breast epithelial cells promoted cell viability and proliferation. Additionally, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed that in normal cells FAM83A is involved in cellular morphology and metabolism. Mass spectrometry analysis identified DDX3X and LAMB3 as potential FAM83A interaction partners in primary cells, while we detected FAM83A interaction with cytoskeleton reorganization factors, including LIMA1, MYH10, PLEC, MYL6 in the immortalized cells.Conclusions: This study shows that FAM83A promotes metabolic activation in primary epithelial cells and survival in immortalized cells. These findings support its role in early breast oncogenesis.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257492
Author(s):  
Nury N. Olaya-Galán ◽  
Sandra P. Salas-Cárdenas ◽  
Jorge L. Rodriguez-Sarmiento ◽  
Milcíades Ibáñez-Pinilla ◽  
Ricardo Monroy ◽  
...  

Viruses have been implicated in cancer development in both humans and animals. The role of viruses in cancer is typically to initiate cellular transformation through cellular DNA damage, although specific mechanisms remain unknown. Silent and long-term viral infections need to be present, in order to initiate cancer disease. In efforts to establish a causative role of viruses, first is needed to demonstrate the strength and consistency of associations in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a causative agent of leukemia in cattle, with breast cancer and its biomarkers used as prognosis of the severity of the disease (Ki67, HER2, hormonal receptors) in Colombian women. An unmatched, observational case–control study was conducted among women undergoing breast surgery between 2016–2018. Malignant samples (n = 75) were considered as cases and benign samples (n = 83) as controls. Nested-liquid PCR, in-situ PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for viral detection in blood and breast tissues. For the risk assessment, only BLV positive samples from breast tissues were included in the analysis. BLV was higher in cases group (61.3%) compared with controls (48.2%), with a statistically significant association between the virus and breast cancer in the unconditional logistic regression (adjusted-OR = 2.450,95%CI:1.088–5.517, p = 0.031). In this study, BLV was found in both blood and breast tissues of participants and an association between breast cancer and the virus was confirmed in Colombia, as an intermediate risk factor.


Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maliha Latif ◽  
Asif Loya ◽  
Maryam Hameed ◽  
Usman Hassan ◽  
Sajid Mushtaq ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Natascia Marino ◽  
Rana German ◽  
Ram Podicheti ◽  
Douglas B. Rusch ◽  
Pam Rockey ◽  
...  

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified several breast cancer susceptibility loci. However, biomarkers for risk assessment are still missing. Here, we investigated cancer-related molecular changes detected in tissues from women at high risk for breast cancer prior to disease manifestation. Disease-free breast tissue cores donated by healthy women (N=146, median age=39 years) were processed for both methylome (MethylCap) and transcriptome (Illumina HiSeq4000) sequencing. Analysis of tissue microarray and primary breast epithelial cells was used to confirm gene expression dysregulation. Results: Transcriptomic analysis identified 69 differentially expressed genes between women at either high and those at average risk of breast cancer (Tyrer-Cuzick model) at FDR<0.05 and fold change≥2. The majority of the identified genes were involved in DNA damage checkpoint, cell cycle, and cell adhesion. Two genes, FAM83A and NEK2, were overexpressed in tissue sections (FDR<0.01) and primary epithelial cells (p<0.05) from high-risk breasts. Moreover, 1698 DNA methylation aberrations were identified in high-risk breast tissues (FDR<0.05), partially overlapped with cancer-related signatures, and correlated with transcriptional changes (p<0.05, r≤0.5). Finally, among the participants, 35 women donated breast biopsies at two time points, and age-related molecular alterations enhanced in high-risk subjects were identified. Conclusions: Normal breast tissue from women at high risk of breast cancer bears molecular aberrations that may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. This study is the first molecular characterization of the true normal breast tissues and provides an opportunity to investigate molecular markers of breast cancer risk, which may lead to new preventive approaches.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0253009
Author(s):  
Sogol Ghanbari ◽  
Adel Salimi ◽  
Saeid Rahmani ◽  
Nahid Nafissi ◽  
Ali Sharifi-Zarchi ◽  
...  

Background One of the most widely used evaluation methods in miRNA experiments is qRT-PCR. However, selecting suitable internal controls (IC) is crucial for qRT-PCR experiments. Currently, there is no consensus on the ICs for miRNA qRT-PCR experiments in breast cancer. To this end, we tried to identify the most stable (the least expression alteration) and promising miRNAs in normal and tumor breast tissues by employing TCGA miRNA-Seq data and then experimentally validated them on fresh clinical samples. Methods A multi-component scoring system was used which takes into account multiple expression stability criteria as well as correlation with clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we extended the scoring system for more than two biological sub-groups. TCGA BRCA samples were analyzed based on two grouping criteria: Tumor & Normal samples and Tumor subtypes. The top 10 most stable miRNAs were further investigated by differential expression and survival analysis. Then, we examined the expression level of the top scored miRNA (hsa-miR-361-5p) along with two commonly used ICs hsa-miR-16-5p and U48 on 34 pairs of Primary breast tumor and their adjacent normal tissues using qRT-PCR. Results According to our multi-component scoring system, hsa-miR-361-5p had the highest stability score in both grouping criteria and hsa-miR-16-5p showed significantly lower scores. Based on our qRT-PCR assay, while U48 was the most abundant IC, hsa-miR-361-5p had lower standard deviation and also was the only IC capable of detecting a significant up-regulation of hsa-miR-21-5p in breast tumor tissue. Conclusions miRNA-Seq data is a great source to discover stable ICs. Our results demonstrated that hsa-miR-361-5p is a highly stable miRNA in tumor and non-tumor breast tissue and we recommend it as a suitable reference gene for miRNA expression studies in breast cancer. Additionally, although hsa-miR-16-5p is a commonly used IC, it’s not a suitable one for breast cancer studies.


Author(s):  
Androniki Mitrou ◽  
Xin Feng ◽  
Ashraf Khan ◽  
Anna N. Yaroslavsky

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Naoko Hashimoto Takigami ◽  
Shimpei Kuniyoshi ◽  
Yasuhiro Miki ◽  
Kentaro Tamaki ◽  
Yoshihiko Kamada ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has been one of the well known risk factors of breast cancer (BC) development and also associated with adverse clinical outcomes of BC patients. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been used as antidiabetic therapeutic agents and recent epidemiological studies have reported their use to be correlated with increased BC risks. However, biological or pathological details have remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined the status of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in BC with and without DM and correlated the findings with the clinicopathological factors of the patients to explore the possible involvement of GLP-1 in BC pathology.Methods: We immunolocalized GLP-1R in cancer and adjacent non-pathological breast tissues in BC patients with DM (125 cases) and without DM (58 cases). We then compared the status of GLP-1R with that of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and disease free survival (DFS) of the patients and also between cancerous and non-pathological breast tissues.Results: GLP-1R immunoreactivity was significantly higher (p=0.044) in the patients with DM than without in carcinoma tissues. However, this was detected only in invasive carcinoma (p<0.01) and not in non-invasive carcinoma nor non-pathological mammary glands. FGF7 was significantly correlated with the status of GLP-1R in BC (p=0.045). In addition, in ER positive BC cases, those with GLP-1R positive status tended to have higher Ki-67 LI of more than 14% (p=0.070).Conclusion: These findings all demonstrated the possible association between GLP-1R status and biological features of BC, especially of invasive BC in DM patients.


2021 ◽  
pp. 153537022110104
Author(s):  
Mingfei Xu ◽  
Chaoyue Liu ◽  
Lulan Pu ◽  
Jinrong Lai ◽  
Jingjia Li ◽  
...  

Cadherins form connection between cells, facilitate communication, and serve as essential agents in the progression of multiple cancers. Over 100 cadherins have been identified and they are mainly divided into four groups: classical cadherins (CDHs), protocadherins (PCDHs), desmosomal (DSC), and cadherin-related proteins. Accumulating evidence has indicated that several members of the cadherins are involved in breast cancer development. Nevertheless, the expression profiles and corresponding prognostic outcomes of these breast cancer-related cadherins are yet to be analyzed. Here, we examined the expression levels and prognostic potential of these breast cancer-related cadherins from the specific databases viz. oncomine, gene expression profiling interactive analysis, human protein atlas, UALCAN, Kaplan–Meier Plotter, and cBioPortal. We found that the CDH2/11 levels were higher in breast cancer tissues, compared to healthy breast tissues, whereas with CDH3-5, PCDH8/10, and DSC3, the levels were lower in the former than in the latter. Additionally, for CDH1/6/13/17/23, PCDH7, and FAT4, trancript level alterations between breast cancer and healthy tissues varied across different databases. The CDH1 protein levels were elevated in breast cancer tissues versus healthy breast tissues, whereas the protein levels of CDH3/11 and PCDH8/10 were reduced in breast cancer, compared to healthy breast tissues. For CDH15 and CDH23, the expression levels paralleled tumor stage. Survival analysis, using the Kaplan–Meier Plotter database, demonstrated that elevated CDH1-3 levels correlated with diminished relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients. Alternately, enhanced CDH4-6/15/17/23, PCDH10, DSC3, and FAT4 levels estimated a rise in relapse-free survival of breast cancer patients. These data suggest CDH1-3 to be a promising target for breast cancer precision therapy and CDH4-6/15/17/23, PCDH10, DSC3, and FAT4 to be novel biomarkers for breast cancer prognosis.


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