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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-23
Zaleha Kamaludin ◽  
Alaa Siddig ◽  
Najib Majdi Yaacob ◽  
Alfred K. Lam ◽  
Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul Rahman

Biomarker identification is imperative for invasive breast carcinoma, which is more aggressive and associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis in younger patients (<45 years) than in older patients (>50 years). The current study aimed to investigate angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protein expression in breast tissue from young patients with breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was applied in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of breast carcinoma tissue from young patients aged <45 years at the time of diagnosis. Both proteins were expressed in the majority of cases. The highest frequency of positive ANGPTL4 and IGF-1 expression was observed in the luminal A subtype, whereas the HER2-overexpression subtype exhibited the lowest expression frequency for both proteins. There was no significant association between ANGPTL4 (p = 0.897) and IGF-1 (p = 0.091) expression and molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma. The histological grade was a significant predictor of ANGPTL4 expression (grade 1 vs. grade 3, adjusted odds ratio = 12.39, p = 0.040). Therefore, ANGPTL-4 and IGF-1 expressions are common in young breast carcinoma tissue. There is a potential use of them as biomarkers in breast carcinoma.

Radiation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-77
Maria Gomolka ◽  
Martin Bucher ◽  
Lukas Duchrow ◽  
Beate Hochstrat ◽  
Dirk Taeger ◽  

Systematic bio- and databanks are key prerequisites for modern radiation research to investigate radiation response mechanisms in the context of genetic, environmental and lifestyle-associated factors. This report presents the current status of the German Uranium Miners’ Biobank. In 2008, the bio- and databank was established at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, and the sampling of biological materials from former uranium miners with and without lung cancer was initiated. For this purpose, various biological specimens, such as DNA and RNA, were isolated from blood samples as well as from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue. High-quality biomaterials suitable for OMICs research and the associated data on occupational radiation and dust exposure, and medical and lifestyle data from over 1000 individuals have been stored so far. Various experimental data, e.g., genome-wide SNPs, whole genome transcriptomic and miRNA data, as well as individual chromosomal aberration data from subgroups of biobank samples, are already available upon request for in-depth research on radiation-induced long-term effects, individual radiation susceptibility to lung cancer and radon-induced fingerprints in lung cancer. This biobank is the first systematic uranium miners´ biobank worldwide that is suitable for OMICs research on radiation-exposed workers. It offers the opportunity to link radiation-induced perturbations of biological pathways or processes and putative adverse outcome(s) by OMICs profiling at different biological organization levels.

Amr Ibrahim ◽  
Emad Elqalshy ◽  
Ahmed El-Mohamadi ◽  
Kamal Abd El-Rahman ◽  
Magdy Alazzazi

Background: The present study was carried out to evaluate the roles of proliferation and angiogenesis in locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma versus ameloblastic fibroma; Methods: 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks (15 cases of ameloblastoma &amp; 15 cases of ameloblastic fibroma) were used. To evaluate the proliferation, the tissue sections were stained with AgNORs stain. CD105 was used as immunohistochemical marker of angiogenesis. Quantitative evaluations of AgNORs were performed. The mean vascular density was evaluated as a measure for CD105 protein expression by using image analyzer computer system; Results: The mean number of AgNORs dots per nucleus was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma. Also, the protein level of CD105 showed positive expression and wide distribution that the mean vascular density was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma; Conclusion: Quantitative evaluation of AgNORs stain &amp; the mean vascular density utilizing CD105 protein expression may reflect a higher proliferative activity and a more locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma when compared to ameloblastic fibroma, that other factors may be involved in biologic behavior of ameloblastic fibroma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Tam Vu ◽  
Alexander Vallmitjana ◽  
Joshua Gu ◽  
Kieu La ◽  
Qi Xu ◽  

AbstractMultiplexed mRNA profiling in the spatial context provides new information enabling basic research and clinical applications. Unfortunately, existing spatial transcriptomics methods are limited due to either low multiplexing or complexity. Here, we introduce a spatialomics technology, termed Multi Omic Single-scan Assay with Integrated Combinatorial Analysis (MOSAICA), that integrates in situ labeling of mRNA and protein markers in cells or tissues with combinatorial fluorescence spectral and lifetime encoded probes, spectral and time-resolved fluorescence imaging, and machine learning-based decoding. We demonstrate MOSAICA’s multiplexing scalability in detecting 10-plex targets in fixed colorectal cancer cells using combinatorial labeling of five fluorophores with facile error-detection and removal of autofluorescence. MOSAICA’s analysis is strongly correlated with sequencing data (Pearson’s r = 0.96) and was further benchmarked using RNAscopeTM and LGC StellarisTM. We further apply MOSAICA for multiplexed analysis of clinical melanoma Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues. We finally demonstrate simultaneous co-detection of protein and mRNA in cancer cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 288-300
Hyeji Jeon ◽  
Su Min Seo ◽  
Tae Wan Kim ◽  
Jaesung Ryu ◽  
Hyejeong Kong ◽  

The aim of the study was to develop a new diagnostic biomarker for identifying serum exosomal miRNAs specific to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to find out target gene of the miRNA for exploring the molecular mechanisms in EOC. A total of 84 cases of ovarian masses and sera were enrolled, comprising EOC (n = 71), benign ovarian neoplasms (n = 13). We detected expression of candidate miRNAs in the serum and tissue of both benign ovarian neoplasm group and EOC group using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry were constructed using formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue to detect expression level of suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 (SOCS4). In the EOC group, miRNA-1290 was significantly overexpressed in serum exosomes and tissues as compared to benign ovarian neoplasm group (fold change ≥ 2, p < 0.05). We observed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for miR-1290, using a cut-off of 0.73, the exosomal miR-1290 from serum had AUC, sensitivity, and specificity values of 0.794, 69.2 and 87.3, respectively. In immunohistochemical study, expression of SOCS4 in EOC was lower than that in benign ovarian neoplasm. Serum exosomal miR-1290 could be considered as a biomarker for differential diagnosis of EOC from benign ovarian neoplasm and SOCS4 might be potential target gene of miR-1290 in EOC.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106689692110642
Katsutoshi Kokubun ◽  
Kei Yamamoto ◽  
Yoshihiko Akashi ◽  
Takatoshi Chujo ◽  
Kei Nakajima ◽  

Background and aim: Ameloblastoma is a benign, intraosseous, progressively growing, epithelial, odontogenic neoplasm. BRAF and SMO mutations have been reported in ameloblastoma. In this study, we evaluated BRAF V600E and SMO L412F mutations; and assessed the relationship between BRAF V600E mutant expression and the clinicopathological features in Japanese patients with ameloblastoma. Methods: We examined 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. All specimens were from patients with mandibular ameloblastoma: 20 were conventional ameloblastoma and 4 were unicystic ameloblastoma. The BRAF V600E mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry, and the SMO L412F mutation was assessed only by Sanger sequencing. Results: Twenty of the 24 (83%) ameloblastoma samples carried the BRAF V600E mutation; 22 of the 24 (92%) samples were immunohistochemically positive for BRAF V600E. However, the SMO L412F mutation was not detected in any of them. The BRAF V600E mutation status did not correlate with the clinicopathological features, such as age, sex, location, method, recurrence, and subtype. Conclusion: BRAF inhibitors could be a potential treatment option for Japanese patients with ameloblastoma, harboring the BRAF V600E mutation.

Maria Grazia Di Certo ◽  
Francesca Gabanella ◽  
Christian Barbato ◽  
Nicoletta Corbi ◽  
Marco Fiore ◽  

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic dictated new priorities in biomedicine research. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. In this pilot study, we optimized our padlock assay to visualize genomic/subgenomic regions using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental samples obtained from a confirmed case of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized in trophoblastic cells. We also checked the presence of the virion by immunolocalization of its glycoprotein spike. In addition, we imaged mitochondria of placental villi keeping in mind that the mitochondrion has been suggested as a potential residence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Indeed, we observed a substantial overlapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mitochondria in trophoblastic cells. This intriguing linkage correlated with an aberrant mitochondrial network. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first study that provides the evidence of a co-localization of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue. These findings also support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 infection could reprogram mitochondrial activity in highly specialized maternal/fetal interface.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
José Guilherme Datorre ◽  
Ana Carolina de Carvalho ◽  
Mariana Bisarro dos Reis ◽  
Monise dos Reis ◽  
Marcus Matsushita ◽  

The use of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to identify and quantify low-abundance targets is a significant advantage for accurately detecting potentially oncogenic bacteria. Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and is becoming an important prognostic biomarker. We evaluated the detection accuracy and clinical relevance of Fn DNA by ddPCR in a molecularly characterized, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC cohort previously analyzed by qPCR for Fn levels. Following a ddPCR assay optimization and an analytical evaluation, Fn DNA were measured in 139 CRC FFPE cases. The measures of accuracy for Fn status compared to the prior results generated by qPCR and the association with clinicopathological and molecular patients’ features were also evaluated. The ddPCR-based Fn assay was sensitive and specific to positive controls. Fn DNA were detected in 20.1% of cases and further classified as Fn-high and Fn-low/negative, according to the median amount of Fn DNA that were detected in all cases and associated with the patient’s worst prognosis. There was a low agreement between the Fn status determined by ddPCR and qPCR (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.210). Our findings show that ddPCR can detect and quantify Fn in FFPE tumor tissues and highlights its clinical relevance in Fn detection in a routine CRC setting.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Haiying Kong ◽  
Linxiang Luo ◽  
Shuiyun Han ◽  
Tao Lei ◽  

Abstract Purpose We sought to understand the clinical course and molecular phenotype of patients who showed disease progression after programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor treatment but subsequently responded to PD-1 inhibitor treatment. We also explored the response to PD-1-axis targeted therapy of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) according to genetically driven PD-L1 and programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2) expression. Methods Five patients in a phase II clinical trial of CS1001 (PD-L1 inhibitor) for relapsed or refractory (R/R) cHL were retrospectively reviewed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole tissues from the five patients were evaluated for 9p24.1 genetic alterations based on FISH and the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I–II, and the tumor microenvironment factorsCD163 and FOXP3 in the microenvironmental niche, as revealed by multiplex immunofluorescence. Results All five patients showed primary refractory disease during first-line treatment. Four patients received PD-1 inhibitor after dropping out of the clinical trial, and all demonstrated at least a partial response. The progression-free survival ranged from 7 to 28 months (median = 18 months), and 9p24.1 amplification was observed in all five patients at the PD-L1/PD-L2 locus. PD-L1 and PD-L2 were colocalized on Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in four of the five (80%) patients. There was differential expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in cells in the tumor microenvironment in cHL, especially in HRS cells, background cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Conclusions PD-L1 monotherapy may not be sufficient to block the PD-1 pathway; PD-L2 was expressed in HRS and background cells in cHL. The immunologic function of the PD-L2 pathway in anti-tumor activity may be underestimated in R/R cHL. Further study is needed to elucidate the anti-tumor mechanism of PD-1 inhibitor and PD-L1 inhibitor treatment.

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