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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Anil Vishnu G. K. ◽  
Gayatri Gogoi ◽  
Bhagaban Behera ◽  
Saeed Rila ◽  
Annapoorni Rangarajan ◽  

AbstractThe rapid and label-free diagnosis of malignancies in ex vivo breast biopsy tissues has significant utility in pathology laboratories and operating rooms. We report a MEMS-based platform integrated with microchips that performs phenotyping of breast biopsy tissues using electrothermal sensing. The microchip, fabricated on a silicon substrate, incorporates a platinum microheater, interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) as on-chip sensing elements. The microchips are integrated onto the platform using a slide-fit contact enabling quick replacement for biological measurements. The bulk resistivity (ρB), surface resistivity (ρS), and thermal conductivity (k) of deparaffinized and formalin-fixed paired tumor and adjacent normal breast biopsy samples from N = 8 patients were measured. For formalin-fixed samples, the mean ρB for tumors showed a statistically significant fold change of 4.42 (P = 0.014) when the tissue was heated from 25 °C to 37 °C compared to the adjacent normal tissue, which showed a fold change of 3.47. The mean ρS measurements also showed a similar trend. The mean k of the formalin-fixed tumor tissues was 0.309 ± 0.02 W m−1 K−1 compared to a significantly higher k of 0.563 ± 0.028 W m−1 K−1 for the adjacent normal tissues. A similar trend was observed in ρB,ρS, and k for the deparaffinized tissue samples. An analysis of a combination of ρB, ρS, and k using Fisher’s combined probability test and linear regression suggests the advantage of using all three parameters simultaneously for distinguishing tumors from adjacent normal tissues with higher statistical significance.

2022 ◽  
Jing Peng ◽  
Danhua Zhang

Objective: The present research set out to ascertain the roles of CCL21 and CBS in breast cancer (BC) cell biological behaviors and the relationship of CCL21 and CBS expression with the clinicopathological features of patients with BC. Methods: Immunohistochemistry of CCL21 or CBS was performed in 18 intraductal cancer tissues, 124 invasive BC tissues, 50 paraneoplastic tissues, 50 lobular hyperplasia tissues, and 30 normal breast tissues. For cell experiments, two human BC cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and a human breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) were utilized to detect the expression of CCL21 and CBS. After loss- and gain-of-function assays for CCL21 or CBS, the expression of CBS and CCL21 was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Additionally, BC cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay and EdU staining, and BC cell migration was determined by scratch test and Transwell assay. Results: In the clinical data, the positive rate of CCL21 or CBS was significantly higher in invasive BC tissues than in intraductal BC tissues, lobular hyperplasia tissues, paraneoplastic tissues, and normal breast tissues (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CBS or CCL21 expression shared close association with the clinicopathological characteristic and the poor prognosis of BC patients. In cell experiments, overexpression of CCL21 or CBS enhanced the proliferative and migratory abilities of BC cells. Conclusion: CCL21 and CBS promoted BC cell migration and proliferation. CCL21 or CBS expression was strongly related to the poor prognosis of BC patients.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Christos Vassileiou ◽  
Stefania Kalantzi ◽  
Eleanna Vachlioti ◽  
Constantinos M. Athanassopoulos ◽  
Christos Koutsakis ◽  

Polyamine toxins (PATs) are conjugates of polyamines (PAs) with lipophilic carboxylic acids, which have been recently shown to present antiproliferative activity. Ten analogs of the spider PATs Agel 416, HO-416b, and JSTX-3 and the wasp PAT PhTX-433 were synthesized with changes in the lipophilic head group and/or the PA chain, and their antiproliferative activity was evaluated on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, using Agel 416 and HO-416b as reference compounds. All five analogs of PhTX-433 were of very low activity on both cell lines, whereas the two analogs of JSTX-3 were highly active only on the MCF-7 cell line with IC50 values of 2.63–2.81 μΜ. Of the remaining three Agel 416 or HO-416b analogs, only the one with the spermidine chain was highly active on both cells with IC50 values of 3.15–12.6 μM. The two most potent compounds in this series, Agel 416 and HO-416b, with IC50 values of 0.09–3.98 μΜ for both cell lines, were found to have a very weak cytotoxic effect on the MCF-12A normal breast cells. The present study points out that the structure of both the head group and the PA chain determine the strength of the antiproliferative activity of PATs and their selectivity towards different cells.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261062
Pelin Ozfiliz Kilbas ◽  
Nisan Denizce Can ◽  
Tugba Kizilboga ◽  
Fikret Ezberci ◽  
Hamdi Levent Doganay ◽  

Bag-1 protein is a crucial target in cancer to increase the survival and proliferation of cells. The Bag-1 expression is significantly upregulated in primary and metastatic cancer patients compared to normal breast tissue. Overexpression of Bag-1 decreases the efficiency of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, whereas Bag-1 silencing enhances the apoptotic efficiency of therapeutics, mostly in hormone-positive breast cancer subtypes. In this study, we generated stable Bag-1 knockout (KO) MCF-7 breast cancer cells to monitor stress-mediated cellular alterations in comparison to wild type (wt) and Bag-1 overexpressing (Bag-1 OE) MCF-7 cells. Validation and characterization studies of Bag-1 KO cells showed different cellular morphology with hyperactive Akt signaling, which caused stress-mediated actin reorganization, focal adhesion decrease and led to mesenchymal characteristics in MCF-7 cells. A potent Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, suppressed mesenchymal transition in Bag-1 KO cells. Similar results were obtained following the recovery of Bag-1 isoforms (Bag-1S, M, or L) in Bag-1 KO cells. The findings of this study emphasized that Bag-1 is a mediator of actin-mediated cytoskeleton organization through regulating Akt activation.

2022 ◽  
Yunhao Gan ◽  
Fuxin Zhong ◽  
Lingyu Li ◽  
Hao Wang

Abstract Background: Invasive breast carcinoma (BRCA) is a common type of breast cancer with high incidence in clinics, so it is significant to find an effective biomarker for BRCA diagnosis and treatment. Although some Armadillo (Arm)-repeat proteins families are confirmed to be biomarkers in cancers, the role of Armadillo repeat-containing 1 (ARMC1) in BRCA remains unknown.Methods: We analyzed the ARMC1 expression in normal breast tissues and BRCA samples, and its association with overall survival by the public database. χ² test evaluated the risks associated with ARMC1 expression in TCGA-BRCA patient samples. The ARMC1 mutations in BRCA were explored in the cBioportal database. Besides, the GO and KEGG analysis was used to explore the potential signaling pathways of ARMC1 in BRCA. Lastly, Immunohistochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed to validate the ARMC1 expression in BRCA.Results: ARMC1 level in tumor sample was significantly higher than that in normal tissue, and it was also related to lower survival. The factors in clinical patients such as tumor stage and grade and histology were associated with ARMC1 expression. There were 32% of ARMC1 genetic mutations in BRCA, and the amplification and high expression made up the majority of them. Also, ARMC1 might regulate BRCA by involving in the cell cycle. Increased ARMC1 expression was found in clinical breast carcinoma tissues by our confirmatory experiments.Conclusions: All the results revealed that ARMC1 may play a significant role in BRCA as a biomarker, it provides valuable clues for the treatment and diagnosis of invasive breast cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e2108
Farzaneh Darbeheshti ◽  
Hosein Mansoori ◽  
Rasoul Abdollahzadeh ◽  
Hassan Dastsooz ◽  
Abdolreza Daraei ◽  

Background: Breast cancer (BC) as a major cause of cancer-related death in women shows a very complex molecular and clinical phenotype, which has reduced the effectiveness of medical interventions. Evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are responsible for an important part of this complexity. This study aims to assess the expression and clinical implication of lncRNA LET in the pathobiology of BC. Materials and Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of lncRNA-LET in breast tumors and adjacent normal-appearing tissues from 4 BC patients, as well as normal mammary tissues. Moreover, a bioinformatics approach was applied to uncover the potential lncRNA-LET-mediated sponge regulatory network as LET/miRNA/mRNA crosstalk. Results: Our study revealed that lncRNA-LET was significantly down-expressed not only in breast tumors but also in normal appearing breast tissues samples from BC subjects compared with true normal breast tissues obtained from healthy women. The low level of lncRNA-LET was meaningfully associated with early-onset menarche (≤13 years) and late-onset menopause (≥50) in patients. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses support that lncRNA-LET could function as a tumor suppressor miRNA sponge. Conclusion: The results indicate that normal appearing breast tissues can undergo tumor-related molecular changes. Furthermore, they reveal the potential role of the dysregulation in LET-mediated ceRNA network in the pathophysiology of BC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (2) ◽  
pp. 7-13
Inam J Lafta ◽  
Bassam K Kudhair ◽  
Oluyinka A Iyiola ◽  
Emad A Ahmed ◽  
Tachung Chou

STAG proteins, which are part of the cohesin complex and encoded by the STAG genes, are known as Irr1/Scc3 in yeast and as SA/STAG/stromalin in mammals. There are more variants as there are alternate splice sites, maybe three open reading frames (ORFs) code for three main proteins, including: SA1 (STAG1), SA2 (STAG2) and SA3 (STAG3). The cohesin protein complex has various essential roles in eukaryotic cell biology. This study compared the expression of the STAG1 gene in four different breast cancer cell lines, including: MCF-7, T-47D, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast tissue. RNA was extracted from these cell lines and mRNA was converted to cDNA, and then expression of the STAG1 gene was quantified by three sets of specific primer pairs using Real Time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The findings show significantly different over-expression of STAG1 in these cancer cell lines in comparison with the normal tissue, and the cell lines were different in their expression levels. In conclusion, the STAG1 gene can be postulated as a candidate breast cancer biomarker that needs to be further evaluated in breast tumor biopsies.

2021 ◽  
Nehal M. Atallah ◽  
Michael S. Toss ◽  
Clare Verrill ◽  
Manuel Salto-Tellez ◽  
David Snead ◽  

AbstractUsing digitalized whole slide images (WSI) in routine histopathology practice is a revolutionary technology. This study aims to assess the clinical impacts of WSI quality and representation of the corresponding glass slides. 40,160 breast WSIs were examined and compared with their corresponding glass slides. The presence, frequency, location, tissue type, and the clinical impacts of missing tissue were assessed. Scanning time, type of the specimens, time to WSIs implementation, and quality control (QC) measures were also considered. The frequency of missing tissue ranged from 2% to 19%. The area size of the missed tissue ranged from 1–70%. In most cases (>75%), the missing tissue area size was <10% and peripherally located. In all cases the missed tissue was fat with or without small entrapped normal breast parenchyma. No missing tissue was identified in WSIs of the core biopsy specimens. QC measures improved images quality and reduced WSI failure rates by seven-fold. A negative linear correlation between the frequency of missing tissue and both the scanning time and the image file size was observed (p < 0.05). None of the WSI with missing tissues resulted in a change in the final diagnosis. Missing tissue on breast WSI is observed but with variable frequency and little diagnostic consequence. Balancing between WSI quality and scanning time/image file size should be considered and pathology laboratories should undertake their own assessments of risk and provide the relevant mitigations with the appropriate level of caution.

2021 ◽  
Padmini Bisoyi ◽  
Padmalaya Devi ◽  
Kusumbati Besra ◽  
Anamika Prasad ◽  
Buddhi Prakash Jain ◽  

Abstract Striatin and SG2NA are scaffold proteins that from signalling complexes called STRIPAK. It has been associated with cancer and other diseases. Our earlier studies have shown that SG2NA forms a complex with the cancer associate protein DJ-1 and signalling kinase Akt, promoting cancer cell survival. In the present study, we used bioinformatics analyses to confirm the existence of two isoforms of human SG2NA i.e., 78 and 87 kDas. In addition, several smaller isoforms like 35 kDa were also seen in western blot analyses of human cell lysates. The expression of these isoforms varies between different human cancer cell lines. Also, the protein level does not corroborate with its transcript level, suggesting a complex regulation of its expression. In breast tumour tissues, the expression of the 35 and 78 kDa isoforms was higher as compared to the adjacent normal tissues, while the 87 kDa isoform was detected in the breast tumour tissues only. With the progression of stages of breast cancer, the expression of 78 kDa isoform decreased, while 87 kDa became undetectable. In coimmunoprecipitation assay, the profile of SG2NA interactome in breast tumor vis-à-vis adjacent normal breast tissues shows hundreds of common proteins, while some proteins specifically interacted in breast tumour tissue only. We conclude that SG2NA is involve in diverse cellular pathways and have roles in cellular reprogramming during tumorigenesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 31-35
Mike Permata Sari

MMP-8 merupakan protease yang diproduksi oleh neutrofil dan berperan dalam degradasi kolagen yang terdapat pada jaringan ikat pada mamalia. Pada manusia, protein MMP-8 disandi oleh gen MMP-8. Pada umumnya, MMP disekresi dalam bentuk proprotein yang diaktifkan ketika dipecah oleh proteinase ekstraseluler. Peningkatan Ekspresi MMP-8 berlebih pada penderita kanker payudara di fase yang berbeda, peningkatan ekspresi MMP-8 tidak ditemukan pada sel payudara normal. MMP-8 memiliki substrat yang berbeda dengan MMP-2 dan MMP-9 yang berperan langsung dalam penyebab metastasis sel kanker payudara ke organ lain. Peran MMP-8 terhadap kanker payudara telah dilaporkan oleh penelitian sebelumnya bahwa MMP-8 mampu memicu metastasis kanker payudara melalui peningkatan sitokin proinflamasi yaitu IL-6 dan IL-8.  IL-6 dan IL-8 menginduksi metastasis melalui jalur persinyalan JAK/STAT3 yang akan mengaktifkan snail/slug/twist yang akan menekan ekspresi E-cadherin, selain itu IL-6 dan IL-8 memicu sintesis VEGF sehingga mengakibatkan pembentukan pembuluh darah baru. MMP-8 is a protease produced by neutrophils and plays a role in the degradation of collagen found in connective tissue in mammals. In humans, the MMP-8 protein is encoded by the MMP-8 gene. In general, MMPs are secreted in the form of proproteins that are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. MMP-8 Ekspression increased in breast cancer patients at different stages, but it is not happenin normal breast cells. MMP-8 has a different substrate with MMP-2 and MMP-9 which play a direct role in causing breast cancer cell metastasis to other organs. The role of MMP-8 in breast cancer has been reported by previous studies that MMP-8 is able to trigger breast cancer metastasis through an increase in proinflammatory cytokines,such as IL-6 and IL-8. IL-6 and IL-8 induce metastasis through the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway which will activate snail/slug/twist which will suppress E-cadherin expression, in addition IL-6 and IL-8 trigger VEGF synthesis, resulting in the formation of new blood vessels.

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