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2022 ◽  
Vol 129 ◽  
pp. 114460
Dilip Kumar Maity ◽  
Surajit Kumar Roy ◽  
Chandan Giri

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-49
Lingjun Zhu ◽  
Arjun Chaudhuri ◽  
Sanmitra Banerjee ◽  
Gauthaman Murali ◽  
Pruek Vanna-Iampikul ◽  

Monolithic 3D (M3D) is an emerging heterogeneous integration technology that overcomes the limitations of the conventional through-silicon-via (TSV) and provides significant performance uplift and power reduction. However, the ultra-dense 3D interconnects impose significant challenges during physical design on how to best utilize them. Besides, the unique low-temperature fabrication process of M3D requires dedicated design-for-test mechanisms to verify the reliability of the chip. In this article, we provide an in-depth analysis on these design and test challenges in M3D. We also provide a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art solutions presented in the literature. This article encompasses all key steps on M3D physical design, including partitioning, placement, clock routing, and thermal analysis and optimization. In addition, we provide an in-depth analysis of various fault mechanisms, including M3D manufacturing defects, delay faults, and MIV (monolithic inter-tier via) faults. Our design-for-test solutions include test pattern generation for pre/post-bond testing, built-in-self-test, and test access architectures targeting M3D.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 236
Takayuki Ohba ◽  
Koji Sakui ◽  
Shinji Sugatani ◽  
Hiroyuki Ryoson ◽  
Norio Chujo

Bumpless Build Cube (BBCube) using Wafer-on-Wafer (WOW) and Chip-on-Wafer (COW) for Tera-Scale Three-Dimensional Integration (3DI) is discussed. Bumpless interconnects between wafers and between chips and wafers are a second-generation alternative to the use of micro-bumps for WOW and COW technologies. WOW and COW technologies for BBCube can be used for homogeneous and heterogeneous 3DI, respectively. Ultra-thinning of wafers down to 4 μm offers the advantage of a small form factor, not only in terms of the total volume of 3D ICs, but also the aspect ratio of Through-Silicon-Vias (TSVs). Bumpless interconnect technology can increase the number of TSVs per chip due to the finer TSV pitch and the lower impedance of bumpless TSV interconnects. In addition, high-density TSV interconnects with a short length provide the highest thermal dissipation from high-temperature devices such as CPUs and GPUs. This paper describes the process platform for BBCube WOW and COW technologies and BBCube DRAMs with high speed and low IO buffer power by enhancing parallelism and increasing yield by using a vertically replaceable memory block architecture, and also presents a comparison of thermal characteristics in 3D structures constructed with micro-bumps and BBCube.

2021 ◽  
Tatsuo Omori ◽  
Kota Shiba ◽  
Atsutake Kosuge ◽  
Mototsugu Hamada ◽  
Tadahiro Kuroda

2021 ◽  
Giuliano Sisto ◽  
Rongmei Chen ◽  
Richard Chou ◽  
Geert Van der Plas ◽  
Eric Beyne ◽  

Baoli Peng ◽  
Dongming Lv ◽  
Guojie Luo ◽  
Mehdi B. Tahoori ◽  
Yuanqing Cheng

2021 ◽  
Chenbing Qu ◽  
Liwei Wang ◽  
Si Chen ◽  
Chen Sun ◽  
Zhiwei Fu ◽  
3D Ics ◽  

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