Interface Models
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Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Miao Wang ◽  
Gang Liu ◽  
Min Huang ◽  
Yabo Fu ◽  
Changhong Lin ◽  

Obtaining detailed information regarding the interfacial characteristics of metal/hexagonal-TMN composites is imperative for developing these materials with optimal mechanical properties. To this end, we systematically investigate the work of adhesion, fracture toughness, and interfacial stability of M/Cr2N and M/V2N interfaces using first-principles calculations. The orientation (0001) of hexagonal phases and (111) of fcc phases are selected as the interface orientations. Accordingly, we construct M/Cr2N interface models by considering 1N, 2N, and Cr terminations of Cr2N(0001), as well as two stacking sequences (top and hollow sites) for the 1N- and 2N-terminated interface models, respectively. The M/V2N interface models are constructed in the same way. The V-terminated Ni/V2N interface is demonstrated to provide a good combination of the work of adhesion, fracture toughness, and interfacial stability. Therefore, the Ni/V2N interface model can be regarded as the preferred configuration among the metal/hexagonal-TMN interface models considered. The present results offer a practical perspective for tailoring the interfaces in metal/hexagonal-TMN composite materials to obtain improved mechanical properties.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (18) ◽  
pp. 2206
Elizaveta Zipunova ◽  
Evgeny Savenkov

Diffuse interface models are widely used to describe the evolution of multi-phase systems of various natures. Dispersed inclusions described by these models are usually three-dimensional (3D) objects characterized by phase field distribution. When employed to describe elastic fracture evolution, the dispersed phase elements are effectively two-dimensional (2D) objects. An example of the model with effectively one-dimensional (1D) dispersed inclusions is a phase field model for electric breakdown in solids. Any diffuse interface field model is defined by an appropriate free energy functional, which depends on a phase field and its derivatives. In this work we show that codimension of the dispersed inclusions significantly restricts the functional dependency of the free energy on the derivatives of the problem state variables. It is shown that to describe codimension 2 diffuse objects, the free energy of the model necessarily depends on higher order derivatives of the phase field or needs an additional smoothness of the solution, i.e., its first derivatives should be integrable with a power greater than two. Numerical experiments are presented to support our theoretical discussion.

2021 ◽  
Soheil Firooz ◽  
Paul Steinmann ◽  
Ali Javili

Abstract Interphase regions that form in heterogeneous materials through various underlying mechanisms such as poor mechanical or chemical adherence, roughness, and coating, play a crucial role in the response of the medium. A well- established strategy to capture a finite-thickness interphase behavior is to replace it with a zero-thickness interface model characterized by its own displacement and/or traction jumps, resulting in different interface models. The contributions to date dealing with interfaces commonly assume that the interface is located in the middle of its corresponding interphase. We revisit this assumption and introduce a universal interface model, wherein a unifying approach to the homogenization of heterogeneous materials embedding interfaces between their constituents is developed. The proposed novel interface model is universal in the sense that it can recover any of the classical interface models. Next, via incorporating this universal interface model into homogenization, we develop bounds and estimates for the overall moduli of fiber-reinforced and particle-reinforced composites as functions of the interface position and properties. Furthermore, we elaborate on the computational implications of this interface model. Finally, we carry out a comprehensive numerical study to highlight the influence of interface position, stiffness ratio and interface parameters on the overall properties of composites, where an excellent agreement between the analytical and computational results is observed. The developed interface-enhanced homogenization framework also successfully captures size effects, which are immediately relevant to emerging applications of nano-composites due their pronounced interface effects at small scales.

2021 ◽  
Cécile Coulon ◽  
Alexandre Pryet ◽  
Jean-Michel Lemieux

<p>In coastal areas, seawater intrusion is a main driver of groundwater salinization and numerical models are widely used to support sustainable groundwater management. Sharp interface models, in which mixing between freshwater and seawater is not explicitly simulated, have fast run times which enable the implementation of parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. These are essential steps for decision-support modeling, however their implementation in sharp interface models has remained limited. Few guidelines exist regarding which observations to use, and what processing and weighting strategies to employ. We developed a data assimilation framework for a regional, sharp interface model designed for management purposes. We built a sharp interface model for an island aquifer using the SWI2 package for MODFLOW. We then extracted freshwater head observations from shallow wells, pumping wells and deep open wells, and observations of the seawater-freshwater interface from deep open wells, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. After quantification of measurement uncertainties, parameter estimation was conducted with PEST and a data worth analysis was carried out using a linear approach. Model residuals provided insight on the potential of different observation groups to constrain parameter estimation. The data worth analysis provided insight on these groups’ importance in reducing the uncertainty of model forecasts. Overall a satisfying fit was obtained between simulated and observed data, but observations from deep open wells were biased. While observations from deep open wells and geophysical surveys had a low signal-to-noise ratio, parameter estimation effectively reduced predictive uncertainty. Interface observations, especially from geophysical surveys, were essential to reduce the uncertainty of model forecasts. The use of different types of observations is discussed and recommendations are provided for future data collection strategies in coastal aquifers. This framework was developed in the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada) and could be carried out more systematically for sharp interface seawater intrusion modeling.</p>

Technologies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Michele Serpilli ◽  
Serge Dumont ◽  
Raffaella Rizzoni ◽  
Frédéric Lebon

This work proposes new interface conditions between the layers of a three-dimensional composite structure in the framework of coupled thermoelasticity. More precisely, the mechanical behavior of two linear isotropic thermoelastic solids, bonded together by a thin layer, constituted of a linear isotropic thermoelastic material, is studied by means of an asymptotic analysis. After defining a small parameter ε, which tends to zero, associated with the thickness and constitutive coefficients of the intermediate layer, two different limit models and their associated limit problems, the so-called soft and hard thermoelastic interface models, are characterized. The asymptotic expansion method is reviewed by taking into account the effect of higher-order terms and defining a generalized thermoelastic interface law which comprises the above aforementioned models, as presented previously. A numerical example is presented to show the efficiency of the proposed methodology, based on a finite element approach developed previously.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 91-106
Bertrand Bessagnet ◽  
Laurent Menut ◽  
Maxime Beauchamp

Abstract. An interpolation programme coded in Fortran for irregular N-dimensional cases is presented and freely available. The need for interpolation procedures over irregular meshes or matrixes with interdependent input data dimensions is frequent in geophysical models. Also, these models often embed look-up tables of physics or chemistry modules. Fortran is a fast and powerful language and is highly portable. It is easy to interface models written in Fortran with each other. Our programme does not need any libraries; it is written in standard Fortran and tested with two usual compilers. The programme is fast and competitive compared to current Python libraries. A normalization option parameter is provided when considering different types of units on each dimension. Some tests and examples are provided and available in the code package. Moreover, a geophysical application embedding this interpolation programme is provided and discussed; it consists in determining back trajectories using chemistry-transport or mesoscale meteorological model outputs, respectively, from the widely used CHIMERE and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models.

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