ethical leadership
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Hengwei Zhu ◽  
Muhammad Kamran Khan ◽  
Shakira Nazeer ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Qinghua Fu ◽  

Listening to employees’ concerns reduces their dissatisfaction, but moreover, for an organization to achieve sustainable success, employees must raise their creative voice and give their input in decision-making without the fear of rejection in a psychologically safe environment. Ethical leaders facilitate such a participative style of management. A bureaucratic culture, as is generally encountered in Pakistan’s work settings, poses real challenges to those who dare to speak up, therefore the importance of ethical leadership, leader–member exchange (LMX), and psychological safety cannot be neglected as coping mechanisms to sustain the employee voice for mutual gains. To investigate ethical leadership’s mediating mechanisms and boundary conditions on voice behavior, we examined a moderated mediation model with the leader–member exchange as a moderator and psychological safety as a mediator. Grounded in social exchange theory (SET), the current study uniquely posits and tests that employees feel psychologically safe in the presence of an ethical leader with whom they have high-quality social exchanges. Data were collected from 281 employees from the public corporations and private enterprises of the petroleum sector of Karachi. Results of the analysis, through SPSS and AMOS, revealed that psychological safety mediated the relationship of ethical leadership and voice behavior, while the indirect effect of ethical leadership on voice behavior (via psychological safety) is stronger for those employees who enjoy high-quality exchanges with ethical leaders. LMX was also found to moderate the relationship between ethical leadership and voice behavior. Contributions, recommendations, and limitations of the current study and further research areas are also discussed. The study offers practical insight on the mechanism of ethical leadership on employee voice behavior and recommends leaders to develop social exchanges to improve voice behavior for sustainable success.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Hassan Abu Bakar ◽  
Stacey L. Connaughton

PurposeThis study provides a systematic testing of ethical leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by examining the underlying mechanisms of leader motivation language on ethics through which ethical leadership influences followers’ OCB at the team level.Design/methodology/approachA multilevel model was validated via with structural equation modeling (SEM) from hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) based on data collected in a Malaysian organization.FindingsThe perceived leader–member ethical communication at the team-level makes a unique contribution beyond the ethical leadership in explaining OCBs.Originality/valuePerceived leader–member ethical communication mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and OCB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-30
Prince Addai ◽  
Rejoice Mottey ◽  
Michelle Afrifah ◽  
Augustine Osei Boakye

Purpose - Job insecurity exerts a significant impact on turnover intentions among employees. The association may be partly due to the influence of organizational support and the ethicality of leaders. However, there is a shortage of studies on the ameliorating role of organizational support and ethical leadership in the nexus between job insecurity and turnover intentions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the nexus between job insecurity and turnover intentions among banking sector employees. The moderating role of organizational support and ethical leadership on the underlying relationship was assessed to achieve this. Design/methodology/approach – One hundred and sixty (160) banking sector employees were conveniently selected to participate in the study. The sample consisted of female (n = 92) and male (n = 68) employees, ranging from 23 to 49 years. Standardized measures were used in soliciting respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived job insecurity, ethical leadership, organizational support, and turnover intentions. Data were analyzed using regression analysis. Findings – Results revealed a significant positive correlation between perceived job insecurity and turnover intentions. Organizational support and ethical leadership also moderated the association between job insecurity and turnover intentions. The influence of job insecurity on turnover intentions minimizes when management provides the needed support and favorable climatic conditions. Originality/value – In general, the study highlights the importance of organizational support and ethical leadership in lessening the impact of job insecurity on turnover intentions.

10.28945/4896 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
pp. 001-033
Anantha Raj A. Arokiasamy ◽  
Greeni Maheshwari ◽  
Khanh-Linh Nguyen

Aim/Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the influence of ethical and transformational leadership on employee creativity in Malaysia’s private higher education institutions (PHEIs) and the mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. Background: To ensure their survival and success in today’s market, organizations need people who are creative and driven. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of ethical leadership in fostering employee innovation and good corporate responsibility. Research on ethical leadership and transformational leadership, in particular, has played a significant role in elucidating the role of leadership in relation to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we have focused on ethical and transformational leadership as an antecedent for enhancing employee creativity. Despite an increase in leadership research, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that link ethical leadership and transformational leadership to OCB. Because it sheds light on factors other than ethical leadership and transformational leadership that influence employees’ extra-role activity, this research is relevant theoretically. OCB may have a mediating function between ethical leadership and transformational leadership style and employee creativity because it is associated with the greatest outcomes, but empirical research has yet to prove this. So, one of the study’s goals is to add to the hypotheses about how ethical leadership style and transformational leadership affect employee creativity by using an important mediating variable – OCB. Methodology: This study adopted a quantitative approach based on a cross-sectional survey and descriptive design to gather the data in a specific period. A convenient sampling approach was used to gauge 275 employees from Malaysia’s PHEIs. To test the hypotheses and obtain a conclusion, the acquired data was analyzed using the partial least square technique (PLS-SEM). Contribution: The study contributes to leadership literature by advancing OCB as a mediating factor that accounts for the link between ethical and transformational leadership and employee creativity in the higher education sector. Findings: According to the research, OCB has a substantial influence on the creativity of employees. Furthermore, ethical leadership boosted OCB and boosted employee creativity, according to the research. OCB and employee creativity have both been demonstrated to benefit greatly from transformational leadership. Further research revealed that OCB is a mediating factor in the link between leadership styles and creative thinking among employees. Recommendations for Practitioners: Higher education institutions should focus on developing leaders who value transparency and self-awareness in their interactions with followers and who demonstrate an inner moral perspective in addition to balanced information processing to ensure positive outcomes at the individual and organizational levels. Higher education institutions should place a priority on hiring leaders that exhibit ethical and transformational traits to raise awareness of these leadership styles among employees. Recommendation for Researchers: The new study also adds significantly to the body of knowledge by examining the relationship between ethical and transformational leadership and the creativity of the workforce. It aimed to identify the relationship between transformational leadership style and individual creativity in higher education by examining the mediating influence of OCB. Impact on Society: Higher education institutions should devise strategies for developing ethical and transformative leaders who will assist boost OCB and creativity within their workforce. Students and faculty in higher education can benefit from these leadership methods by learning to think in more diverse ways and by developing thought processes that lead to a larger pool of innovative ideas and solutions. As a consequence, employees who show creative behavior may be effectively managed by leaders who utilize ethical and transformational leadership styles and motivate them to show OCB that allow them to solve creative problems creatively. Future Research: A mixed-methods approach should be used in future research, and this should be done in public institutions in developing and developed nations to put the findings to use and generalize them even further. Future research will be able to examine other mediators to learn more about how and why ethical and transformational leadership styles affect PHEI employees’ creativity.

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