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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Romy G. Younan ◽  
Roy A. Raad ◽  
Bassem Y. Sawan ◽  
Rabih Said

Abstract Background Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized cancer treatment over the past several years. Despite their clinical benefits, a wide range of immune-mediated toxicities can be observed including hematological toxicities. Although, the majority can easily be managed, immune-mediated adverse events rarely can be severe and difficult to approach. Herein, we are reporting a case of very severe aplastic anemia secondary to ipilimumab (I) and nivolumab (N) treatment that failed various treatment including intensive immune suppressive therapy. Case presentation We described a case of a 45-year old white male, heavy smoker presented to the clinic complaining of left flank pain. He was found to have a metastatic renal cell carcinoma for which he was treated with dual immunotherapy and later complicated by severe immune related adverse events. The patient later died after failing intensive immune suppressive therapy. Conclusion Immunotherapy has become an established pillar of cancer treatment improving the prognosis of many patients with variant malignancies. Yet, lethal adverse events can occur in rare cases. It is our duty, as physicians, to remain alert and cautious.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (19) ◽  
pp. 10616
Author(s):  
Abdelnaby Khalyfa ◽  
Zhuanhong Qiao ◽  
Murugesan Raju ◽  
Chi-Ren Shyu ◽  
Lyndon Coghill ◽  
...  

Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a major high-affinity pyruvate transporter encoded by the SLC16A7 gene, and is associated with glucose metabolism and cancer. Changes in the gut microbiota and host immune system are associated with many diseases, including cancer. Using conditionally expressed MCT2 in mice and the TC1 lung carcinoma model, we examined the effects of MCT2 on lung cancer tumor growth and local invasion, while also evaluating potential effects on fecal microbiome, plasma metabolome, and bulk RNA-sequencing of tumor macrophages. Conditional MCT2 mice were generated in our laboratory using MCT2loxP mouse intercrossed with mCre-Tg mouse to generate MCT2loxP/loxP; Cre+ mouse (MCT2 KO). Male MCT2 KO mice (8 weeks old) were treated with tamoxifen (0.18 mg/g BW) KO or vehicle (CO), and then injected with mouse lung carcinoma TC1 cells (10 × 105/mouse) in the left flank. Body weight, tumor size and weight, and local tumor invasion were assessed. Fecal DNA samples were extracted using PowerFecal kits and bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons were also performed. Fecal and plasma samples were used for GC−MS Polar, as well as non-targeted UHPLC-MS/MS, and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were subjected to bulk RNAseq. Tamoxifen-treated MCT2 KO mice showed significantly higher tumor weight and size, as well as evidence of local invasion beyond the capsule compared with the controls. PCoA and hierarchical clustering analyses of the fecal and plasma metabolomics, as well as microbiota, revealed a distinct separation between the two groups. KO TAMs showed distinct metabolic pathways including the Acetyl-coA metabolic process, activation of immune response, b-cell activation and differentiation, cAMP-mediated signaling, glucose and glutamate processes, and T-cell differentiation and response to oxidative stress. Multi-Omic approaches reveal a substantial role for MCT2 in the host response to TC1 lung carcinoma that may involve alterations in the gut and systemic metabolome, along with TAM-related metabolic pathway. These findings provide initial opportunities for potential delineation of oncometabolic immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches.


Author(s):  
Sharifah NurDurrah Binti Syed Mudzhar ◽  
Mohd Yusran Othman

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare neuro-cutaneous disorder that is associated with the development of benign hamartomas including renal angiomyolipoma (RAML). TSC associated RAML are usually asymptomatic, but it carries a life-threatening bleeding risk. We are sharing a case of a 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed to have TSC with associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma and autism. She presented with a history of worsening abdominal distension over 3 weeks duration and clinically noted to be pale with a ballotable left flank mass. Ultrasound and CT scan found to have multiple RAML in both kidneys with a huge mass on the left side. The mass represented a huge RAML (8cm) with aneurysmal formation with suspicion of intratumoral bleeding. The option of conservative management with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor followed with partial nephrectomy has been questioned with its life-threatening risk of bleeding and inability to do biopsy to rule out the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. Decision for nephrectomy was then made clearer following a MAG-3 scan which revealed only 11% differential function of the left kidney. She underwent a total left nephrectomy uneventfully and intraoperatively noted to have an enlarging lesion as compared to the previous imaging; 15cm in largest diameter. Histopathological finding was consistent with multifocal angiomyolipoma with intratumoral haematoma. Decision for nephrectomy in TSC-associated RAML need to be justified carefully in view of its risk of losing the contralateral kidney following the disease progression which may end up with life-long renal replacement therapy.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S26


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1136
Author(s):  
Mostafa Abdel-Salam ◽  
Bárbara Pinto ◽  
Geovanni Cassali ◽  
Lilian Bueno ◽  
Gabriela Pêgas ◽  
...  

Cationic anticancer peptides have exhibited potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in neoplastic illness conditions. LyeTx I-b is a synthetic peptide derived from Lycosa erythrognatha spider venom that previously showed antibiotic activity in vitro and in vivo. This study focused on the effects of LyeTxI-b on a 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma model. Mice with a palpable tumor in the left flank were subcutaneously or intratumorally injected with LyeTx I-b (5 mg/kg), which significantly decreased the tumor volume and metastatic nodules. Histological analyses showed a large necrotic area in treated primary tumors compared to the control. LyeTxI-b reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in the 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma model with no signs of toxicity in healthy or cancerous mice. The mechanism of action of LyeTx I-b on the 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma model was evaluated in vitro and is associated with induction of apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, LyeTx I-b seems to be an efficient regulator of the 4T1 tumor microenvironment by modulating several cytokines, such as TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, in primary tumor and lung, spleen, and brain. LyeTx I-b also plays a role in leukocytes rolling and adhesion into spinal cord microcirculation and in the number of circulating leukocytes. These data suggest a potent antineoplastic efficacy ofLyeTx I-b.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rémi Grange ◽  
Bertrand Le Roy ◽  
Clément Chevalier ◽  
Fabrice-Guy Barral ◽  
Sylvain Grange

Abstract Introduction:Bleeding secondary to peristomal varices is a rare but potentially fatal complication of portal hypertension. TIPS is its first-line etiologic treatment in the setting of cirrhosis with portal hypertension. However, TIPS is not always feasible, especially in cases of contraindication or portal trunk occlusion.Case presentation: A patient of 63-year old male was referred for persistent peristomal variceal bleeding. He had a past history cirrhosis with portal hypertension due to alcohol consumption and more recently, rectal cancer with metachronous liver metastasis. He was treated by proctectomy with placement of a stoma in the left flank. An evaluation CT scan showed a tumour-like occlusion of the portal vein, the origin of which is uncertain.He was regularly referred to the emergency department for peristomal bleeding with anaemia, without haemodynamic instability. CT-scan angiogram confirmed ectopic peristomal varices without active bleeding. After multidisciplinary meeting, a minimal invasive approach was decided. Under local anaesthesia and ultrasoung guidance, the varicose vein was punctured by direct percutaneous access using a 22G-needle, and embolized using a mixture of N-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol. The patient had no complication, and no recurrent bleeding occurred after more than 6 months of follow-up. He was discharged from the hospital 8 days later.Conclusion: The percutaneous approach is a simple and effective technique. This approach should be the first line treatment when TIPS is not indicated.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 242-244
Author(s):  
Prachi ◽  
Gaurav Sharma ◽  
Vikas Jain

Primary Squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is rare and accounts to only 0.5- 0.8 % of malignant renal tumours having poor prognosis. Chronic irritation, inflammation and infection induce the pathogenesis of this malignancy. A 53 year old male patient, presented with left flank pain since one month. On radiological investigation, his CT revealed atrophic shrunken left kidney measuring 7.9x5.2cms showing significant parenchymal thinning and complete loss of corticomedullary differentiation. A left upper ureteric calculus is seen measuring 7.5 mm with significant left renal hydronephrosis.Clinically, it was diagnosed as Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis. Grossly the radical nephrectomy specimen measures 10.5x5.5x3.5cm. External surface is irregular & bosselated. On Cut surface renal architecture is effaced by necrotic mass measuring 9.5x5.0x3.0 cm involving pelvic ureter and most of renal parenchyma.Hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue revealed characteristic feature such as keratin pearls and intracellular bridges seen, rendering the diagnosis of well-differentiated keratinising squmaous cell carcinoma seen with 40% tumour necrosis associated with Keratinizing Squamous Dysplasia. In the present case, obstructive uropathy has triggered the event of malignancy. The radiologic differential diagnosis includes primary and secondary renal neoplasms and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with renal calculi. XGP is commonly associated with lithiasis however, rarely causes keratinizing squamous metaplasia and its manifestations closely mimic renal neoplasm, leading to misdiagnosis of malignancy.The prognosis is dismal with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. CT and MRI play a crucial role in diagnosis and staging of these tumors, though histology always remains confirmatory and diagnostic.


2021 ◽  
pp. 20210111
Author(s):  
Nandini Passi ◽  
Anshu C Wadhwa ◽  
Swati Naik

Mucormycosis, commonly known as the “black fungus” is recently emerging as a deadly complication in COVID patients in the Indian subcontinent. A growing number of cases are being reported from all over the country, with a majority of the patients either undergoing treatment or having recovered from COVID. Here, we report three cases of multisystem mucormycosis in COVID positive patients showing, rhino-orbital, cerebral, pulmonary, and genitourinary involvement. The first is a case of a 41-year-old male patient who during his treatment developed left periorbital swelling with ecchymosis and headache. CT and CE-MRI of the paranasal sinuses and brain revealed features of pan fungal sinusitis and subsequent invasion into the left orbit. The second case is of a 52-year-old male patient who after complaining of a severe left-sided hemicranial headache was diagnosed with cavernous sinus thrombosis. The third is of a 57-year-old male patient who presented with left flank pain and dysuria. HRCT (High-resolution CT) chest revealed a thick-walled cavitary lesion, and NCCT KUB (Non-contrast CT of Kidneys, ureters, and bladder) revealed left-sided pyelonephritis. A cystoscopic and microbiological evaluation revealed fungal growth. In all three patients, a biopsy from the involved area revealed broad aseptate filamentous fungal hyphae suggestive of mucormycosis, which was confirmed on culture. These are all unusual cases and physicians should be aware of the possibility of secondary invasive fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 infection.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Devender Kumar ◽  
Satish . ◽  
Govind Narayan Purohit

Cesarean section is one of the oldest surgical procedure performed on cows for delivery of the fetus at parturition. Depending upon the health status of dam and fetus cesarean section has been classified as emergency, non emphysematous and emphysematous procedure. The common maternal indications for performing cesarean section include pelvic fractures, cervical dilation failure and uncorrectable uterine torsion whereas the fetal indication include oversized fetuses and maldisposed calves. Many anesthetic protocols are available for cow however, most cesarean section in cattle can be satisfactorily performed under mild sedation and local infiltration anesthesia using 2% lidocaine. Operative sites for cesarean section in cattle include right and left flank, midline, paramedian, parammary and oblique ventrolateral. The choice of operative sites depends upon facility and patient condition. Peri-operative (before, during and after the operation) care appears to be of utmost significance, post-operative complications of cesarean section include peritonitis, seroma formation, hernia and poor fertility. On the successful outcome of cesarean section in cows in terms of dam and calf survival and future fertility of cows underdoing cesarean section. Previous handling, delay in presentation to referral centers results in poor outcome and thus animal owners must be explained the benefits of prompt presentation of cow to cesarean section for optimal benefits.


2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_6) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. R Chowdhury ◽  
A Goel ◽  
P Sinha ◽  
R Chave-Cox ◽  
D Pal

Abstract We present this rare case which was led by spinal surgeons at Leeds after being deemed not suitable for operative input by a national centre. A 54-year-old lady who presented with 2-month history of worsening left flank pain on a background of four years. She was otherwise fit and well. CT confirmed aggressive left-sided paraspinal tumour with epidural encroachment, extending from T8 to T10 vertebral levels. Its deep surface was well-defined and extending superficially through the chest wall with destruction of ribs. The mass grew in size in course of days requiring urgent attention due to risk of cord compression. Biopsy proved high grade MPNST. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare type of sarcoma, 5-10% of sarcoma cases. MPNST is most common in young adults and middle-aged adults. About 25% to 50% of people with MPNST have NF1. 8% to 13% of people with NF1 will get MPNST in their lifetime. An MDT approach involving spinal, thoracic, vascular and plastic surgeons opined it requiring extensive surgery due to its complexity. It was performed in stages – embolisation then aortic stent placement followed by final resection of the tumour with chest well reconstruction using an LD flap. A multidisciplinary and multispecialty approach has led to a positive prognosis for this patient who is on the road to recovery.


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