septic shock
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
Saber Esmaeili ◽  
Mina Latifian ◽  
Mohammad Khalili ◽  
Mehrdad Farrokhnia ◽  
John Stenos ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mélanie Dechamps ◽  
Julien De Poortere ◽  
Manon Martin ◽  
Laurent Gatto ◽  
Aurélie Daumerie ◽  

Critical COVID-19, like septic shock, is related to a dysregulated systemic inflammatory reaction and is associated with a high incidence of thrombosis and microthrombosis. Improving the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of critical COVID-19 could help in finding new therapeutic targets already explored in the treatment of septic shock. The current study prospectively compared 48 patients with septic shock and 22 patients with critical COVID-19 regarding their clinical characteristics and outcomes, as well as key plasmatic soluble biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, endothelial activation, platelet activation, and NETosis. Forty-eight patients with matched age, gender, and co-morbidities were used as controls. Critical COVID-19 patients exhibited less organ failure but a prolonged ICU length-of-stay due to a prolonged respiratory failure. Inflammatory reaction of critical COVID-19 was distinguished by very high levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and T lymphocyte activation (including IL-7 and CD40L), whereas septic shock displays higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and a more significant elevation of myeloid response biomarkers, including Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) and IL-1ra. Subsequent inflammation-induced coagulopathy of COVID-19 also differed from sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) and was characterized by a marked increase in soluble tissue factor (TF) but less platelets, antithrombin, and fibrinogen consumption, and less fibrinolysis alteration. In conclusion, COVID-19 inflammation-induced coagulopathy substantially differs from SIC. Modulating TF release and activity should be evaluated in critical COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 132
Hsiao-Yun Chao ◽  
Chih-Huang Li ◽  
Shou-Yen Chen

Endoscopic biliary stent insertion is a well-established procedure that is indispensable in the management of various benign and malignant biliary disorders, and one that helps prevent mortality related to invasive surgical procedures. We report a rare case of the distal migration of a biliary stent outside the abdomen to the pericardium, inducing constrictive pericarditis and septic shock. This case alerts clinicians to be aware of potential adverse events that can lead to unfavorable patient outcomes. Such adverse events can be effectively avoided through early detection and intervention.

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sylvie Cointe ◽  
Loris Vallier ◽  
Pierre Esnault ◽  
Mathilde Dacos ◽  
Amandine Bonifay ◽  

Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Jae Hwan Kim ◽  
Chiwon Ahn ◽  
Myeong Namgung

In this study, we investigated the mortality of septic shock patients visiting emergency departments (ED) before and after the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic onset. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and National Emergency Department Information System data of septic shock patients who visited the ED of a tertiary medical center in South Korea from February 2019 to February 2021. Following the COVID-19 pandemic onset, revised institutional ED processes included a stringent isolation protocol for patients visiting the ED. The primary goal of this study was to determine the mortality rate of septic shock patients from before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Durations of vasopressor use, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospitalization were investigated. The mortality rates increased from 24.8% to 35.8%, before and after COVID-19-onset, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.079). No significant differences in other outcomes were found. Multivariable analysis revealed that the Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III) was the only risk factor for mortality (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10), whereas COVID-19 pandemic was not included in the final model. The non-significant influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on septic shock mortality rates in the present study belies the actual mortality-influencing potential of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 821
Florian Rosier ◽  
Nicolas Fernandez Nuñez ◽  
Magali Torres ◽  
Béatrice Loriod ◽  
Pascal Rihet ◽  

Mortality due to sepsis remains unacceptably high, especially for septic shock patients. Murine models have been used to better understand pathophysiology mechanisms. However, the mouse model is still under debate. Herein we investigated the transcriptional response of mice injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared it to either human cells stimulated in vitro with LPS or to the blood cells of septic patients. We identified a molecular signature composed of 2331 genes with an FDR median of 0%. This molecular signature is highly enriched in regulated genes in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS. There is significant enrichment in several inflammatory signaling pathways, and in disease terms, such as pneumonia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, severe sepsis, an inflammatory disorder, immune suppression, and septic shock. A significant overlap between the genes upregulated in mouse and human cells stimulated with LPS has been demonstrated. Finally, genes upregulated in mouse cells stimulated with LPS are enriched in genes upregulated in human cells stimulated in vitro and in septic patients, who are at high risk of death. Our results support the hypothesis of common molecular and cellular mechanisms between mouse and human sepsis.

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