indian subcontinent
Recently Published Documents





2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Yousaf ◽  
Z. Hasan ◽  
F. Zaidi ◽  
S. B. Rasheed

Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.

2022 ◽  
Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.

Md. Mashiar Rahman ◽  
Md. Abdullah Al Noman ◽  
Md. Walid Hossain ◽  
Rahat Alam ◽  
Selena Akter ◽  

AbstractLoss of tubulin is associated with neurodegeneration and brain aging. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has frequently been employed as a spice in curry and traditional medications in the Indian subcontinent to attain longevity and better cognitive performance. We aimed to evaluate the unelucidated mechanism of how turmeric protects the brain to be an anti-aging agent. D. melanogaster was cultured on a regular diet and turmeric-supplemented diet. β-tubulin level and physiological traits including survivability, locomotor activity, fertility, tolerance to oxidative stress, and eye health were analyzed. Turmeric showed a hormetic effect, and 0.5% turmeric was the optimal dose in preventing aging. β-tubulin protein level was decreased in the brain of D. melanogaster upon aging, while a 0.5% turmeric-supplemented diet predominantly prevented this aging-induced loss of β-tubulin and degeneration of physiological traits as well as improved β-tubulin synthesis in the brain of D. melanogaster early to mid-age. The higher concentration (≥ 1%) of turmeric-supplemented diet decreased the β-tubulin level and degenerated many of the physiological traits of D. melanogaster. The turmeric concentration-dependent increase and decrease of β-tubulin level were consistent with the increment and decrement data obtained from the evaluated physiological traits. This correlation demonstrated that turmeric targets β-tubulin and has both beneficial and detrimental effects that depend on the concentration of turmeric. The findings of this study concluded that an optimal dosage of turmeric could maintain a healthy neuron and thus healthy aging, by preventing the loss and increasing the level of β-tubulin in the brain.

2022 ◽  
Malay Ganai ◽  
Sahadat Sarkar ◽  
Radhika Kanase ◽  
R. Phani Murali Krishna ◽  
P Mukhopadhyay

Abstract In the present study, an investigation is made to understand the physical mechanism behind the anomalous high rainfall during August 2020 over the Indian subcontinent using both observation and GFS T1534 weather forecast model. According to India Meteorological Department (IMD), the country receives 27% excess rainfall in the month of August 2020. The excess rainfall is mainly contributed by the 5 well marked low pressure systems which formed over Bay of Bengal and moved west-northwestwards across central India up to Western Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The analysis reveals that the observed anomalous rainfall is distributed over central India region extending from coastal Orissa to central part of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and western coast of Gujarat region. It is also found that the August-2020 heavy rainfall is mainly contributed by the synoptic (2-10 days) component of the total rainfall whereas the contribution of the large-scale intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) component (10-90 days) is quite less. Although the present operational Global Forecast System (GFS) T1534 (GFS T1534) is able to predict the anomalous high rainfall with day-1 lead time, it underestimates the magnitude of the synoptic variance. Further, the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamical parameters show anomalous behaviour in terms of strong low level (850 hPa) jet, vertical velocity and associated moisture convergence in the lower level. The GFS T1534 is able to forecast the above large-scale features reasonably well even with day-5 lead time. From energetics analysis, it is found that the mean kinetic energy (MKE) is stronger for August 2020 as compared to climatological value and the strong MKE efficiently transfers the energy to the synoptic scale, and hence the synoptic eddy kinetic energy is higher. Along with that, the ISO scale kinetic energy for August 2020 is less compared to the August climatological value. GFS T1534 model has some fidelity in capturing the energy conversion processes, but it has some difficulty in capturing the magnitude with increased lead time.

2022 ◽  

The Sanskrit narrative text Devī Māhātmya—“The greatness of the Goddess” (also known as Durgā Saptaśatī and Caṇḍī Pāṭha, henceforth DM)—extols the tripartite triumphs of the all-powerful Goddess (Devī, Ambikā, Caṇḍikā, Durgā) over the universe-imperiling demons. Devī manifests for the protection of the gods, and cosmic order as a whole, in times of dire need. These exploits of this formidable feminine power constitute the first articulation of a Great Goddess within the Indian subcontinent. While the DM equates supreme reality with the feminine Hindu concepts of maya (illusion, magic), śakti (power, force, energy), and prakṛti (material nature), it posits no systematic theory. As only narrative can, the DM instead masterfully interweaves these philosophical strands, along with preexisting feminine faces within the Vedic fold, into the figure of a feminine divine whose greatness surpasses that of the Vedic pantheon, and even that of the cosmic Trimurti comprised of the “Great Gods” Brahma, Vishnu [Skt. Viṣṇu], and Shiva [Skt. Śiva]. The DM serves not only to exalt the Goddess as supreme, but also celebrates her paradoxical nature: she is both one and many, immanent and transcendent, liminal and central, gentle and fierce, motherly and martial. Yet there is no ambiguity in her status as all-powerful. She is utterly invincible. While power is something the gods possess, power is something the Goddess is. It is she, then, who ultimately creates, preserves, and destroys the universe and all beings within it. Variously dated between the 4th and 8th century ce, the DM finds a home as part of the Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa, comprising chapters 81–93 thereof. Far from a textual relic, the DM is recited as liturgy in goddess temples, during individual daily spiritual practice, and at temples and homes especially during the autumnal navaratra (“nine nights”) Hindu Goddess festival, commonly known as Durgā Pūjā. The DM independently circulates not only within this rich liturgic life, but as a standalone mythological, philosophical, and theological authority on the Hindu Goddess. In this respect, it is not dissimilar from the Bhagavad Gita’s circulation independent of the Mahābhārata in which it is couched. The DM’s recitation is considered beneficial for listeners and reciters alike. As exemplified and overtly stated in the DM, engaging the glories of the Goddess invariably secure her protection and benediction.

2022 ◽  
Tista Ghosh ◽  
Shrewshree Kumar ◽  
Kirtika Sharma ◽  
Parikshit Kakati ◽  
Amit Sharma ◽  

The extant members of the Eurasian rhino species have experienced severe population and range declines through a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors since the Pleistocene. The one-horned rhino is the only Asian species recovered from such strong population decline but most of their fragmented populations in India and Nepal are reaching carrying capacity. Implementation of any future reintroduction-based conservation efforts would greatly benefit from currently unavailable detailed genetic assessments and the evolutionary history of these populations. We sequenced wild one-horned rhino mitogenomes from all the extant populations (n=16 individuals) for the first time, identified the polymorphic sites and assessed genetic variation (2531bp mtDNA, n=111 individuals) across India. Results showed 30 unique rhino haplotypes distributed as three distinct genetic clades (Fst value 0.68-1) corresponding to the states of Assam (n=28 haplotypes), West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh (both monomorphic). Phylogenetic analyses suggest earlier coalescence of Assam (~0.5 Mya) followed by parallel divergence of West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh/Nepal (~0.06-0.05Mya), supported by the paleobiogeographic history of the Indian subcontinent. Combined together, we propose recognising three Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) of the Indian rhino. As recent assessments suggest further genetic isolations of the Indian rhinos at local scales, future management efforts should focus on identifying genetically variable founder animals and consider periodic supplementation events while planning future rhino reintroduction programs in India. Such well-informed, multidisciplinary approach is the only way to ensure evolutionary, ecological and demographic stability of the species across its range.

This study traces the earliest cases of blastomycosis reported from India. Four authentic cases of blastomycosis from India including one each from Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and one each from Bangladesh and Nepal, and five misdiagnosed cases have been reported in India after 2013. The clinical and diagnostic features of all cases are reviewed. The authentic cases from India originate from widespread locations in the country. The incidence of blastomycosis in dogs is known to be eight to ten times higher than that in humans. There is only one case of canine blastomycosis from India manifesting as a fatal pulmonary infection in a Mongrel dog. It is suggested additional canine cases should be looked for in different parts of India to facilitate the detection of endemic foci of B. dermatitidis for human and animal infections in the country. Mycological investigation of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis negative for culture and AFBs mear, and not responding to anti-tubercular therapy may reveal some cases of blastomycosis. A recently developed real-time PCR for identification of B. dermatitidis in culture and tissue may facilitate correct diagnosis of blastomycosis in suspected cases. Antigen testing in urine or serum is also recommended for diagnosing clinical infection and monitoring antifungal therapy in blastomycosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 146
Stefan Panaiotov ◽  
Dzheni Madzharov ◽  
Yordan Hodzhev

Bulgaria is among the 18 high-priority countries of the WHO European Region with high rates of tuberculosis. The causative agent of tuberculosis is thought to have emerged in Africa 70,000 years ago, or during the Neolithic age, and colonized the world through human migrations. The established main lineages of tuberculosis correlate highly with geography. The goal of our study was to investigate the biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria in association with human migration history during the last 10 centuries. We analyzed spoligotypes and MIRU-VNTR genotyping data of 655 drug-sensitive and 385 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains collected in Bulgaria from 2008 to 2018. We assigned the genotype of all isolates using SITVITWEB and MIRU-VNTRplus databases and software. We investigated the major well-documented historical events of immigration to Bulgaria that occurred during the last millennium. Genetic profiles demonstrated that, with the exceptions of 3 strains of Mycobacterium bovis and 18 strains of Lineage 2 (W/Beijing spoligotype), only Lineage 4 (Euro-American) was widely diffused in Bulgaria. Analysis of well-documented immigrations of Roma from the Indian subcontinent during the 10th to the 12th centuries, Turkic peoples from Central Asia in the medieval centuries, and more recently Armenians, Russians, and Africans in the 20th century influenced the biodiversity of M. tuberculosis in Bulgaria but only with genotypes of sublineages within the L4. We hypothesize that these sublineages were more virulent, or that ecological adaptation of imported M. tuberculosis genotypes was the main driver contributing to the current genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis in Bulgaria. We also hypothesize that some yet unknown local environmental factors may have been decisive in the success of imported genotypes. The ecological factors leading to local genetic biodiversity in M. tuberculosis are multifactorial and have not yet been fully clarified. The coevolution of long-lasting pathogen hosts should be studied, taking into account environmental and ecological changes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 96-103
Ansari Umme Ammara Maqbool Ahmad ◽  
Qamar Uddin ◽  
Bhoraniya Abdullah Ismail ◽  
Juveria Jabeen

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis involving small joints of the hand and feet. It has a global prevalence of 0.8 to 1% in Europe and the Indian subcontinent. Rheumatoid arthritis (Waja‘al-Maf?sil) had been broadly described and managed by the Unani scholars since antiquity. Many pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment methods are available in the classical Unani literature. The treatment differs for different varieties of morbid humour involved in disease pathogenesis. Treatment aims to reduce morbidity and prevent disability, subsequently improving the quality of life. This review article mainly highlights the management of rheumatoid arthritis mentioned in classical Unani literature and supportive scientific evidence of various preclinical and clinical studies suggesting the potential of Unani medicine. This review article aims to explore the concept of rheumatoid arthritis in the Unani system of medicine to provide a better understanding of disease and its management through the holistic policy of Unani medicine. This review may conclude that Unani treatment can form an alternative source to manage RA.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document