fungal infections
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 561-572
Izamara Marzolla Gutierres Jacob Machado ◽  
Luiz Henrique Inacio ◽  
Nátaly Diane Rocha Silva ◽  
Francisco José Teixeira Gonçalves ◽  

Peanut seed can be infected by pathogen diseases that adversely affect the oil crop’s value chain. Ozone gas (O3) can be an alternative for the control of fungal diseases due to its high oxidizing potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of O3 exposure time on physiological and health characteristics of seed from three peanut cultivars. Seed from peanut cultivars Granoleico, IAC OL3, and IAC 503 were analyzed for their health (blotter test) and physiological potential (germination, first count, and seedling length) after exposure to O3 for 0, 1, 8, and 16 h. Peanut seed physiological quality and health differed among cultivars. Exposure of seed from peanut cultivars IAC OL3, IAC 503, and Granoleico to O3 at a rate of 600 mg h-1 did not affect the development of normal seedlings as measured by the first count and germination, but seedling length increased, decreased, or was not affected in cultivars Granoleico, IAC 503, and IAC OL3, respectively. Also, O3 did not eradicate fungal infections in peanut seed treated with O3 at a rate of 600 mg h-1 for up to 16 h, but the incidence of the fungus Rhizopus sp. in seed from cultivars IAC OL3, Granoleico, and IAC 503 increased, decreased or was not affected, respectively, after 8 h.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. Ludwig ◽  
J. Y. Muraoka ◽  
C. Bonacorsi ◽  
F. C. Donofrio

Abstract Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-13
Nightingale Syabbalo

Asthma is a common chronic airway disease affecting about 358 million people worldwide, and an estimated 7 million children globally. Approximately 10% of patients with asthma have severe refractory disease, which is difficult to control on high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and other modifiers. Among these, are patients with severe neutrophilic asthma. Neutrophilic asthma is a severe phenotype of asthma, characterized by frequent exacerbations, persistent airway obstruction, and poor lung function. Immunopathologically, it is characterized by the presence of high levels of neutrophils in the airways and lungs. Interleukin-17 produced by Th17 cells, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neutrophilic asthma by expressing the secretion of chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines for the recruitment, and activation of neutrophils. Interleukin-8 is a powerful chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. Activated neutrophils produce an oxidative burst, releasing multiple reactive oxygen species, proteinases, cytokines, which cause airway epithelial cell injury, inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. Furthermore, exasperated neutrophils due to viral, bacterial or fungal infections, and chemical irritants can release extracellular nucleic acids (DNA), designated as NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are more toxic to the airway epithelial cells, and orchestrate airway inflammation, and release alarmin cytokines. Dysregulated NETs formation is associated with severe asthma. Most patients with neutrophilic asthma are unresponsive to the standard of care, including high dose inhaled corticosteroids, and to targeted biologics, such as mepolizumab, and dupilumab, which are very effective in treating eosinophilic asthma. There is unmet need to explore for novel biologics for the treatment of neutrophilic asthma, and in refining therapies, such as bronchial thermoplasty.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Hiba Dagher ◽  
Ray Hachem ◽  
Anne-Marie Chaftari ◽  
Ying Jiang ◽  
Shahnoor Ali ◽  

(1) Introduction: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) and stem cell transplants (SCT). Isavuconazole was approved by FDA as a primary therapy for Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) and Mucormycosis. The aim of this study is to look at the real-world use of Isavuconazole in patients with HM and evaluate their clinical outcomes and safety. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of HM patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center who had definite, probable or possible mold infections between 1 April 2016 and 31 January 2020 and were treated with Isavuconazole for a period of at least 7 days. Clinical and radiological findings were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks of follow up. (3) Results: We included 200 HM patients with IFIs that were classified as definite (11), probable (63) and possible (126). Aspergillus spp was the most commonly isolated pathogen. The majority of patients (59%) received prophylaxis with anti-mold therapy and Isavuconazole was used as a primary therapy in 43% of patients, and as salvage therapy in 58%. The switch to Isavuconazole was driven by the failure of the primary therapy in 66% of the cases and by adverse effects in 29%. Isavuconazole was used as monotherapy in 30% of the cases and in combination in 70%. Adverse events possibly related to Isavuconazole were reported in eight patients (4%) leading to drug discontinuation. Moreover, a favorable response with Isavuconazole was observed in 40% at 6 weeks and in 60% at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference between isavuconazole monotherapy and combination therapy (p = 0.16 at 6 weeks and p = 0.06 at 12 weeks). Finally, there was no significant difference in outcome when Isavuconazole was used after failure of other anti-mold prophylaxis or treatment versus when used de novo as an anti-mold therapy (p = 0.68 at 6 weeks and p = 0.25 at 12 weeks). (4) Conclusions: Whether used as first-line therapy or after the failure of other azole and non-azole prophylaxis or therapies, isavuconazole seems to have a promising clinical response and a good safety profile as an antifungal therapy in high-risk cancer patients with hematologic malignancies. Moreover, combination therapy did not improve the outcome compared to Isavuconazole therapy.

2022 ◽  
Joon Ho Son ◽  
Jee Yun Doh ◽  
Kyungdo Han ◽  
Yeong Ho Kim ◽  
Ju Hee Han ◽  

Abstract Dermatophytosis includes all fungal infections caused by dermatophytes in humans. Some risk factors for the development of subtypes of dermatophytosis have been studied; however, large-scale epidemiologic studies on risk factors for total dermatophytosis are scarce. We investigated the risk factors of dermatophytosis using a nationwide study. Total 4,532,655 subjects with dermatophytosis aged between 20 to 40 years were examined using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2009 to 2018. Women showed a lower risk of development of dermatophytosis compared to men (hazard ratio [HR], 0.848; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.843–0.853). Subjects with elevated waist circumference (HR, 1.057; 95% CI, 1.048–1.065), heavy drinking (HR, 1.053; 95% CI, 1044–1.061), engaging in mild-to-heavy exercise (HR, 1.071; 95% CI, 1.064–1.077) had a higher risk of dermatophytosis. In addition, subjects with body mass index (BMI) of more than 30 kg/m2 exhibited a higher risk of dermatophytosis (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.342–1.378) compared to those with BMIs in the range of 18.5 to 23 kg/m2. In this study, the risk of developing dermatophytosis significantly increased in individuals with elevated waist circumference or high BMI. Lifestyle modifications, including weight management, are suggested to be important in preventing dermatophytosis.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Nusrat Jahan Shaly ◽  
Mohammed Moshtaq Pervez ◽  
Sayeeda Huq ◽  
Dilruba Ahmed ◽  
Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan ◽  

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are opportunistic, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Children with IFIs are more vulnerable to a fatal outcome. For early diagnosis and treatment, knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of IFIs among children is prerequisite. In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 168 children of 2–59 months old of either sex from March 2018 to December 2019 admitted to the Dhaka hospital, icddr,b. Study participants with suspected IFIs were with or without severe acute malnutrition (SAM) along with sepsis/pneumonia and fulfilled any of the following criteria: (i) failure to respond to injectable antibiotics, (ii) development of a late-onset hospital-acquired infection, (iii) needed ICU care for >7 days, (iv) took steroids/antibiotics for >2 weeks before hospitalization, and (v) developed thrush after taking injectable antibiotics. The comparison group included non-SAM (weight-for-length Z score ≥ −2) children with diarrhea and fever <3 days in the absence of co-morbidity. We performed real-time PCR, ELISA, and blood culture for the detection of fungal pathogen. Study group children with SAM, positive ELISA and PCR considered to have a IFIs. In the study group, 15/138 (10.87%) children had IFIs. Among IFIs, invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis detected in 6 (4.53%), 11 (7.97%), and 1 (0.72%) children, respectively, and (3/15 [2.17%]) children had both candidiasis and aspergillosis. Children with IFIs more often encountered septic shock (26.7% vs. 4.9%; p = 0.013) and had a higher death rate (46.7% vs. 8.9%; p < 0.001) than those without IFIs. IFIs were independently associated with female sex (OR = 3.48; 95% CI = 1.05, 11.55; p = 0.042) after adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings thus implicate that, malnourished children with septic shock require targeted screening for the early diagnosis and prompt management of IFIs that may help to reduce IFIs related deaths.

Sushma Yadav Boorgula ◽  
Sadhana Yelamanchili ◽  
Pragathi Kottapalli ◽  
Mohini D. Naga

Abstract Introduction Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has limited treatment options, concern has been raised over secondary infections and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns. It has been observed that patients who were infected with COVID-19 were predisposed to develop secondary infections. The purpose of the study is to ascertain the prevalence of the bacterial and fungal coinfections in COVID-19 patients, and also to assess the AMR patterns in the obtained isolates. Methods We have studied 200 clinical samples obtained from 122 COVID-19 positive patients. Pathogens were identified using Vitek 2 system. The demographic and clinical patterns were also observed. Results A total of 122 patients developed secondary infections. Patients aged more than 40 years were majorly affected (p-value < 0.0001). Respiratory samples (n = 96) were predominant. Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 68) was the most common pathogen isolated followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 54) and an overall 6% rise in the Carbapenem resistance was observed in the isolates. Conclusion To contain the secondary infections in COVID-19 patients, it is imperative to adhere to antimicrobial stewardship program and timely revise the empirical antibiotic policy.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 265
Md Minarul Islam ◽  
Rashedul Alam ◽  
Hea-Jong Chung ◽  
Nazim Uddin Emon ◽  
Mohammad Fazlul Kabir ◽  

Bauhinia scandens L. (Family: Fabaceae) is commonly used to treat cholera, diarrhea, asthma, and diabetes disorder in integrative medicine. This study aimed to screen the presence of phytochemicals (preliminary and UPLC-QTOF–M.S. analysis) and to examine the pharmacological activities of Bauhinia scandens L. stems (MEBS) stem extracts. Besides, in silico study was also implemented to elucidate the binding affinity and drug capability of the selected phytochemicals. In vivo anti diarrheal activity was investigated in mice models. In vitro, antibacterial and antifungal properties of MEBS against several pathogenic strains were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. In addition, in silico study has been employed using Discovery studio 2020, UCFS Chimera, PyRx autodock vina, and online tools. In the anti-diarrheal investigation, MEBS showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition rate in all three methods. The antibacterial and antifungal screening showed a remarkable zone of inhibition, of the diameter 14–26 mm and 12–28 mm, by MEBS. The present study revealed that MEBS has remarkable anti-diarrheal potential and is highly effective in wide-spectrum bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, the in silico study validated the results of biological screenings. To conclude, MEBS is presumed to be a good source in treating diarrhea, bacterial and fungal infections.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Ilaria Maria Saracino ◽  
Claudio Foschi ◽  
Matteo Pavoni ◽  
Renato Spigarelli ◽  
Maria Chiara Valerii ◽  

Candida spp. are commensal organisms of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, blood, and vagina of animals and humans. In recent decades, the incidence of human fungal infections has increased, with Candida spp. (mainly C. albicans) infections being the most frequent, and the treatment of fungal infections is still a clinical challenge. Colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract by Candida spp. is significant because infections (e.g., candidemia and vulvovaginal candidiasis) frequently arise from commensal microorganisms. The aim of this study was to test in vitro the antifungal activity and the eventual synergistic effect of five pure components of essential oils: cinnamaldehyde, α-pinene, limonene, eucalyptol, and eugenol. These compounds were tested on 18 Candida strains (15 C. albicans, 2 C. glabrata, and 1 C. lusitaniae) derived from a culture collection of vaginal clinical strains. Methods: Fungistatic activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. For fungicidal activity, microdilution and time–kill curve protocols were set up. The checkerboard method was chosen to evaluate a possible synergistic effect of these compounds when mixed. Results: Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol gave the best results, inhibiting all the Candida strains and showing a highly additive effect (FICI 0.625). The cinnamaldehyde inhibition zone (IZ), MIC, and MFC means were 69 mm, 50.05 mg/L, and 109.26 mg/L respectively. Cinnamaldehyde led to the total loss of viable Candida cells within 4 h. Eugenol IZ, MIC, and MFC means were 35.2 mm, 455.42 mg/L, and 690.09 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol led to the total loss of viable fungal cells within 1 h. Treatment with α-pinene inhibited 88.9% of Candida strains, with an IZ mean of 21.2 mm, a MIC mean of 195.41 mg/L, and a MFC mean of 251.27 mg/L; this compound led to the total loss of viable fungal cells only after 24 h. Limonene inhibited only 33.3% of the tested strains and eucalyptol did not produce an inhibition halo, so these compounds were not tested further. Conclusions: These characteristics, together with the well-known safety of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol for human use, make these two natural compounds the perfect candidates for the treatment of candidiasis. This was a pilot study, the purpose of which was to evaluate the best composition of a mixture to be used against intestinal and vulvovaginal candidiasis; in vivo studies are needed to confirm these very encouraging results.

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