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Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e246884
Author(s):  
Victor Carvalho ◽  
Paula H Damasco ◽  
Thiago S Mello ◽  
Bruno Gonçalves

A 21-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department with dyspnoea, arterial hypotension and abdominal pain after 5 days with a influenza-like syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by reverse transcription PCR in a nasopharyngeal swab specimen. CT of the chest and abdomen with contrast demonstrated a minimal amount of free intraperitoneal fluid, gallbladder with wall oedema, multiple para-aortic lymph node and interlobular septal thickening with ground glass opacities on the lungs. No pleural effusion or thromboembolism. Early broad-spectrum antibiotics, high-flow nasal cannula and norepinephrine were started. She was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and pulse corticosteroid therapy with methylprednisolone. The patient was discharged home with complete resolution of her symptoms and returned to her previous health status.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e245661
Author(s):  
Amir Labib ◽  
Amir Samir Elbarbary

Mandibular fractures are rare in infants, and diagnosis can be easily missed due to the difficulty in obtaining an adequate history and the subtle signs. A high index of suspicion and detailed history taking from the caregiver are mandatory to pick up these cases.There are a plethora of management options that have been reported in dealing with such fractures. They range from conservative management to internal fixation by absorbable plates. While conservative management does not interfere with mandibular growth and teeth development, any surgical intervention can carry this risk. Nevertheless, a severely displaced fracture may need anatomical reduction and fixation to allow early nutrition.This study reports a 3-month-old male infant with a fracture in the mandibular symphysis who underwent reduction of the fracture and circummandibular fixation using immobilisation by an acrylic splint for 4 weeks. His long-term follow-up after 20 months showed adequate dentition with proper healing of the fracture site.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e246005
Author(s):  
Louise Gurowich ◽  
Gabriel Yiin ◽  
Adam Maxwell ◽  
Alexandra Rice

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition affecting the neuromuscular junction characterised by weakness and fatiguability, carrying a high morbidity if treatment is delayed. A clear association with thymoma has led to management with thymectomy as a common practice, but MG presenting post-thymectomy has rarely been reported. We present a case of an 82- year-old woman developing fatigue, ptosis and dysarthria 3 months after thymectomy. After a clinical diagnosis of MG was made, she responded well to prompt treatment with prednisolone and pyridostigmine. Her anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR) subsequently came back positive. Our systematic review reveals that post-thymectomy MG can be categorised as early-onset or late-onset form with differing aetiology, and demonstrated correlation between preoperative anti-AChR titres and post-thymectomy MG. The postulated mechanisms for post-thymectomy MG centre around long-lasting peripheral autoantibodies. Clinicians should actively look for MG symptoms in thymoma patients and measure anti-AChR preoperatively to aid prognostication.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e246646
Author(s):  
Crystal Nguyen ◽  
Murugan Athigaman ◽  
Abdul Qureshi

Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the colon accounts for <1% of all colorectal malignancies. Our patient was a 72-year-old man with a history of aortic valvular disorder and congestive heart failure, who presented with an abdominal mass and no constitutional symptoms. The CT scan finding suggested a large tumour with both solid and cystic components. Intraoperatively, a portion of the involved colon was resected along with the tumour. Microscopically, the tumour was found to invade the muscularis propria layer of the transverse colon. The final diagnosis was LMS, FNCLCC grade 2 of 3 based on the histology and immunochemistry.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e245695
Author(s):  
Shafini Beryl ◽  
Benjamin Jeyanth Ross ◽  
Mintoo Tergestina ◽  
Manish Kumar

Evans syndrome is a rare and chronic autoimmune disease seen in both paediatric and adult age groups. We present a case of severe thrombocytopenia in a neonate born to a mother with Evans syndrome who showed no response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy initially and improved after treatment with methylprednisolone.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e247077
Author(s):  
Matthew James Stone ◽  
Natalie Megan Roberts ◽  
Mohammad Umair Anwar

We present the case of a female teenager who sustained nitrous oxide burns to the medial aspect of both thighs from contact with a nitrous oxide canister being used to fill balloons. There was a delay in presentation as the injury was not initially recognised. These burns were initially assessed as being superficial partial-thickness burns but took a prolonged time to heal despite regular wound care. This was complicated by a lack of adherence to recommended treatment for much of the patient care as well as the patient testing positive for COVID-19 during their management, which prevented surgery and significantly extended time to healing. While small numbers of similar cases have been previously described this is the first reported case outside of the Netherlands and in a child. Being aware of such cases ensures early referral to specialist burn care for appropriate management to give patients the best possible outcome.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e245448
Author(s):  
Stephen P Connolly ◽  
Jonathan McGrath ◽  
Jane Sui ◽  
Eavan G Muldoon

We describe the case of a 30-year-old man who presented to our institution with hypoxia and widespread pulmonary infiltrates managed initially as COVID-19 before receiving a new diagnosis of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with widespread pulmonary and skeletal involvement. Initial differential diagnoses included Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, disseminated mycobacterial infection and bacillary angiomatosis. A bone marrow biopsy showed heavy infiltration by spindle cells, staining strongly positive for human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) and CD34, suggesting symptomatic, disseminated KS as the unifying diagnosis. The patient commenced cytotoxic therapy with weekly paclitaxel, with a clinical and radiological response. To our knowledge, this case is among the most severe described in the literature, which we discuss, along with how COVID-19 initially hindered developing a therapeutic allegiance with the patient.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e245362
Author(s):  
Thomas Robert William Ward ◽  
Kanai Garala ◽  
Bryan Riemer

A 61-year-old polytrauma patient was admitted with a right distal comminuted metaphyseal femoral fracture with intra-articular extension (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33C2.3 classification) among other injuries. Due to the high degree of comminution and massive bone loss, this was initially managed with a dual plating open reduction internal fixation. Dual plating has shown to be a superior fixation method than single variable angle locking compression plate (VA-LCP) plating providing greater fixation in metaphyseal bone. Our case reports the failure of dual plating which required removal of metalwork and subsequent fixation using intramedullary nail and plate technique. Failure of dual plating is not well documented in the literature. The most recent radiographs taken 15 months postrevision surgery show that the bone has started to heal with evidence of callus formation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e246681
Author(s):  
Orlando De Jesus ◽  
Christian Rios-Vicil ◽  
Joel E Pellot Cestero ◽  
Eric F Carro-Figueroa

The formation of an intraperitoneal pseudocyst as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts is well known. However, the formation of a pseudocyst at the subcutaneous extraperitoneal abdominal space is unusual and likely secondary to the migration of the peritoneal catheter. We present a 53-year-old male who had placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus secondary to a vestibular schwannoma. Five months later, he presented with an enormously distended abdomen. Investigations showed the peritoneal catheter in the extraperitoneal space within a large right lower quadrant abdominal wall pseudocyst. The patient was taken to the operating theatre, and the shunt was externalised at the original abdominal incision. Approximately 3 L of cerebrospinal fluid were aspirated from the distal peritoneal catheter. After negative cultures, a new peritoneal catheter was placed intraperitoneally at the contralateral lower abdominal quadrant. The contralateral quadrant was utilised to prevent fluid accumulation into the old extraperitoneal cavity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. e247239
Author(s):  
Han Lim Ong ◽  
Han Jie Lee ◽  
Tze Kiat Ng ◽  
Te-Lu Yap

Hematuria is not uncommonly seen among children. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who was diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma after presenting with persistent gross hematuria for 2 weeks. We highlight the importance of adequate workup for gross hematuria as it is often associated with an underlying pathology that could lead to significant morbidity if left undiagnosed.


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