plasma cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 883-888
Ayodhya Cardoso Ramalho ◽  
Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira ◽  
Max Bruno Magno Bacalhao ◽  
Monica Tiemi Aline Kakimori ◽  

Parasitic infections are important concern to the Wildlife Conservation Biology, particularly in endangered species. Herein, we report a parasitism by Dipetalonema gracile Rudolphi, 1809 (Spirurida, Filarioidea, Onchocercidae), in the peritoneal cavity of a captive Marcgrave’s capuchin monkey (Sapajus flavius) that died at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) of the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) in the municipality of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The necropsy revealed two filarial worms D. gracile in the abdominal cavity. Exudates, thin fibrin layers and fibrous adhesions were also present in the mesentery and spleen capsule. The mesenteric, mandibular, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were enlarged. Multiple small nodules were seen in the spleen parenchyma. Microscopic examination of the lymph nodes and spleen revealed markedly and diffuse inflammatory reaction, with edema, plasma cells, eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes and rare multinuclear giant cells, with obliteration of the normal histological architecture of the organ. This is the first report of D. gracile parasitism in Marcgrave’s capuchin monkeys, a critically endangered species. Studies of this nature significantly contribute to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of endangered species, in addition to helping to formulate conservation strategies (in situ and ex situ) and records of new hosts and new areas of occurrence of parasites.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jiaxin Fan ◽  
Mengying Chen ◽  
Shuai Cao ◽  
Qingling Yao ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Ischemic stroke (IS) is a principal contributor to long-term disability in adults. A new cell death mediated by iron is ferroptosis, characterized by lethal aggregation of lipid peroxidation. However, a paucity of ferroptosis-related biomarkers early identify IS until now. This study investigated potential ferroptosis-related gene pair biomarkers in IS and explored their roles in immune infiltration. Results In total, we identified 6 differentially expressed ferroptosis-related genes (DEFRGs) in the metadata cohort. Of these genes, 4 DEFRGs were incorporated into the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, including 78 lncRNA-miRNA and 16 miRNA-mRNA interactions. Based on relative expression values of DEFRGs, we constructed gene pairs. An integrated scheme consisting of machine learning algorithms, ceRNA network, and gene pair was proposed to screen the key DEFRG biomarkers. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve witnessed that the diagnostic performance of DEFRG pair CDKN1A/JUN was superior to that of single gene. Moreover, the CIBERSORT algorithm exhibited immune infiltration landscapes: plasma cells, resting NK cells, and resting mast cells infiltrated less in IS samples than controls. Spearman correlation analysis confirmed a significant correlation between plasma cells and CDKN1A/JUN (CDKN1A: r = − 0.503, P < 0.001, JUN: r = − 0.330, P = 0.025). Conclusions Our findings suggested that CDKN1A/JUN could be a robust and promising gene-pair diagnostic biomarker for IS, regulating ferroptosis during IS progression via C9orf106/C9orf139-miR-22-3p-CDKN1A and GAS5-miR-139-5p/miR-429-JUN axes. Meanwhile, plasma cells might exert a vital interplay in IS immune microenvironment, providing an innovative insight for IS therapeutic target.

2022 ◽  
Amelie Bonaud ◽  
Laetitia Gargowitsch ◽  
Simon Gilbert ◽  
Elanchezhian Rajan ◽  
Pablo Canales-Herrerias ◽  

Despite the essential role of plasma cells in health and disease, the cellular mechanisms controlling their survival and secretory capacity are still poorly understood. Here, we identified the SNARE Sec22b as a unique and critical regulator of plasma cell maintenance and function. In absence of Sec22b, plasma cells were barely detectable and serum antibody titres were dramatically reduced. Accordingly, Sec22b deficient mice fail to mount a protective immune response. At the mechanistic level, we demonstrated that Sec22b is indispensable for efficient antibody secretion but also for plasma cell fitness through the regulation of the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Altogether, our results unveil a critical role for Sec22b-mediated regulation of plasma cell biology through the control of organelle dynamics.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 292
Ada-Sophia Clees ◽  
Verena Stolp ◽  
Björn Häupl ◽  
Dominik C. Fuhrmann ◽  
Frank Wempe ◽  

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy, which is characterized by clonal proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow. This microenvironment is characterized by low oxygen levels (1–6% O2), known as hypoxia. For MM cells, hypoxia is a physiologic feature that has been described to promote an aggressive phenotype and to confer drug resistance. However, studies on hypoxia are scarce and show little conformity. Here, we analyzed the mRNA expression of previously determined hypoxia markers to define the temporal adaptation of MM cells to chronic hypoxia. Subsequent analyses of the global proteome in MM cells and the stromal cell line HS-5 revealed hypoxia-dependent regulation of proteins, which directly or indirectly upregulate glycolysis. In addition, chronic hypoxia led to MM-specific regulation of nine distinct proteins. One of these proteins is the cysteine protease legumain (LGMN), the depletion of which led to a significant growth disadvantage of MM cell lines that is enhanced under hypoxia. Thus, herein, we report a methodologic strategy to examine MM cells under physiologic hypoxic conditions in vitro and to decipher and study previously masked hypoxia-specific therapeutic targets such as the cysteine protease LGMN.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kang Chen ◽  
Yong Yao ◽  
Xinxin Mao ◽  
Hui You ◽  
Linjie Wang ◽  

Abstract Background The differential diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis and other inflammatory diseases or tumors involving sellar region is challenging even after sellar biopsy. Sellar germinoma is usually infiltrated by lymphocytes or plasma cells, and may be confused with hypophysitis. Case presentation A 36-year-old man with diabetes insipidus, elevated serum IgG4 level (336 mg/dl), and sellar mass was suspected to have IgG4-related hypophysitis, and no other lesion of IgG4-related disease was detected. After treated by prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil, the serum IgG4 decreased to 214 mg/dl. However, after withdrawal of the drugs, the IgG4 level increased to 308 mg/dl. Endocrine assessments revealed panhypopituitarism, and the sellar mass enlarged. Transsphenoidal sellar exploration and biopsy was conducted. Pathological examination showed that the lesion was germinoma with lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltration, and IgG4-staining was positive (70/HPF, IgG4/IgG ratio = 10%). The patient was then treated by cisplatin and etoposide. After four cycles of chemotherapy, the serum IgG4 was 201 mg/dl, and the sellar mass was invisible. Conclusion Sellar germinoma can mimic the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related hypophysitis. Poor response to glucocorticoids can be used as an exclusion criterion in the clinical diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jiayi Liu ◽  
Zhijie Bai ◽  
Shuaiqi Li ◽  
Sheng Zeng ◽  
Chuang Li ◽  

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT), also known as plasma cell granuloma (PCG) or inflammatory pseudotumour (IPT), is a distinctive, rarely metastasizing neoplasm composed of myofibroblastic and fibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by inflammatory infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes and/or eosinophils. IMT predominantly affects children and young adults, and the age at presentation ranges from 3 to 89 years. We present a very rare case of recurrent testicular IMT without ALK rearrangement. This case highlights the clinical characteristics and diagnostic factors associated with primary and recurrent foci of this rare tumour, along with key therapeutic approaches.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 00
Christine Strippel ◽  
Anna Heidbreder ◽  
Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck ◽  
Lisanne Korn ◽  
Tobias Warnecke ◽  

Background and ObjectivesDespite detection of autoantibodies, anti-IgLON5 disease was historically considered a tau-associated neurodegenerative disease, with limited treatment options and detrimental consequences for the patients. Observations in increasing case numbers hint toward underlying inflammatory mechanisms that, early detection provided, open a valuable window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to further substantiate this view by studying the CSF of patients with anti-IgLON5.MethodsWe identified 11 patients with anti-IgLON5 from our database and compared clinical, MRI, and CSF findings with a cohort of 20 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (as a noninflammatory tauopathy) and 22 patients with functional neurologic disorder.ResultsPatients with anti-IgLON5 show inflammatory changes in routine CSF analysis, an increase in B-lymphocyte frequency, and the presence of plasma cells in comparison to the PSP-control group and functional neurologic disease controls. Patients with intrathecal plasma cells showed a clinical response to rituximab.DiscussionOur findings indicate the importance of inflammatory mechanisms, in particular in early and acute anti-IgLON5 cases, which may support the use of immune-suppressive treatments in these cases. The main limitation of the study is the small number of cases due to the rarity of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Verena Endmayr ◽  
Cansu Tunc ◽  
Lara Ergin ◽  
Anna De Rosa ◽  
Rosa Weng ◽  

BackgroundIgG4 is associated with two emerging groups of rare diseases: 1) IgG4 autoimmune diseases (IgG4-AID) and 2) IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RLD). Anti-neuronal IgG4-AID include MuSK myasthenia gravis, LGI1- and Caspr2-encephalitis and autoimmune nodo-/paranodopathies (CNTN1/Caspr1 or NF155 antibodies). IgG4-RLD is a multiorgan disease hallmarked by tissue-destructive fibrotic lesions with lymphocyte and IgG4 plasma cell infiltrates and increased serum IgG4 concentrations. It is unclear whether IgG4-AID and IgG4-RLD share relevant clinical and immunopathological features.MethodsWe collected and analyzed clinical, serological, and histopathological data in 50 patients with anti-neuronal IgG4-AID and 19 patients with IgG4-RLD.ResultsA significantly higher proportion of IgG4-RLD patients had serum IgG4 elevation when compared to IgG4-AID patients (52.63% vs. 16%, p = .004). Moreover, those IgG4-AID patients with elevated IgG4 did not meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RLD, and their autoantibody titers did not correlate with their serum IgG4 concentrations. In addition, patients with IgG4-RLD were negative for anti-neuronal/neuromuscular autoantibodies and among these patients, men showed a significantly higher propensity for IgG4 elevation, when compared to women (p = .005). Last, a kidney biopsy from a patient with autoimmune paranodopathy due to CNTN1/Caspr1-complex IgG4 autoantibodies and concomitant nephrotic syndrome did not show fibrosis or IgG4+ plasma cells, which are diagnostic hallmarks of IgG4-RLD.ConclusionOur observations suggest that anti-neuronal IgG4-AID and IgG4-RLD are most likely distinct disease entities.

Е.И. Чумасов ◽  
Е.С. Петрова ◽  
Д.Э. Коржевский

С помощью гистологических методов окраски толуидиновым синим, гематоксилином и эозином и иммуногистохимических реакций на белок PGP 9.5, тирозингидроксилазу (ТГ), белок Iba-1, изучены клеточные изменения в разных отделах сердца крыс линии Wistar в возрасте 18- 23 мес. В соединительной ткани основания сердца обнаружены очаговые воспалительные инфильтраты, внутри которых выявлены PGP 9.5 и ТГ сплетения, состоящие из парасимпатических и симпатических нервных волокон. В области клапанного аппарата, на границе фиброзного кольца и миокарда правого предсердия, обнаружены патологические изменения нервных структур - дегенерация нервных пучков и зернистый распад варикозных аксонов терминального сплетения. Установлены тесные взаимоотношения аксонов терминальной нервной сети с клетками воспалительных инфильтратов и кровеносными сосудами. Определены закономерности встречаемости в различных отделах миокарда у старых животных нейроклеточных воспалительных комплексов, состоящих из нервных волокон, кровеносных капилляров и клеток-участников местного воспалительного процесса (тучных клеток, макрофагов, фибробластов, плазмоцитов). Установлен хронический характер нейрогенного воспаления в сердце при старении. Using histological methods of staining with toluidine blue, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical reactions for the PGP 9,5 protein, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Iba-1 protein, cellular changes in different parts of the heart of Wistar rats at the age of 18-23 months were studied. In the connective tissue of the heart base, focal inflammatory infiltrates were found, near which PGP 9.5 and TH plexuses, consisting of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers, were detected. In the area of the valvular heart apparatus, at the border of the anneau fibreux and the myocardium of the right atrium, pathological changes in nerve structures were found: degeneration of nerve fibers and granular destruction varicose axons of the terminal plexus. A close relationship has been established between axons of the terminal nervous network and cells of inflammatory infiltrates and blood capillaries. The features of the localization of neurocellular inflammatory complexes consisting of nerve fibers, blood capillaries and cells participating in the local inflammatory process (mast cells, histiocytes, monocytes, fibroblasts, plasma cells) in various parts of the myocardium in old animals are described. The chronic nature of neurogenic inflammation in the heart during aging has been established.

Jutty Parthiban ◽  
B. Udaykumar ◽  
Sudeendra Reddy Peddireddy ◽  
Balasubramaniam Prakash ◽  
Vighnesh Kandha Kumar

AbstractMultiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of bone marrow affecting plasma cells. It is commonly seen as multiple punched-out lesions in the skull bone as a characteristic feature. Its presentation as hemicranial involvement with intracranial extension is rare. A 46-year-old male presented with left side scalp swelling, prominent over parietal region. X-ray showed multiple punched out lesions involving left hemicranium. CT and MRI brain showed intracranial extension of lesion without brain parenchyma invasion. He was treated with biopsy of lesion followed by chemotherapy.

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